Posted: November 28th, 2013

Unit 3 DB I John

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Unit 3 DB I John

**Attack rate**

An attack rate, in relation to epidemiology, is an infection of cumulative incidence in a group of individuals over a given period, usually in an outbreak. It is usually related to illnesses that are foodborne. It is the number of infected persons exposed to the disease, divided by the total number of persons exposed to the disease.

**Count. **

To number; to carry weight or to possess value; henceforth, increasing or adding to the influence or strength of a group or interest. A noble man hailing from the European continent, ranking equally to an earl from English, in charge of a county (Salkind, 2010).

**Incidence rate. **

This refers to the number of new reports concerning a disease in the course of a given period in a defined number of individuals. Incidence conveys information related to the risk of contraction of the disease. It is used in understanding disease etiology.

**Proportions. **

This is the similarity or equality in terms of ratios. In particular, in applies to geometrical ratios; or a connection among amounts in that the quotient of the third in sequence divided by the corresponding fourth is equal to that of the first divided by that of the second (Shaw, 2007). It is an indication of comparison of the amount of two things.

**Populations risk. **

In addition, called vulnerable population, is a group of individuals who share a trait would cause each person to be vulnerable to a particular occurrence. It is a specific group that is more likely to be predisposed, or more susceptible to a particular substance compared to the rest of the population. (Shaw, 2007).

**Proportional mortality ratio**

Proportional mortality is a ratio of the number of deaths put down to a source to the total number of deaths developing in the population in the course of a specified time period. It serves as an indication of the affliction of a given death relative to all deaths. It is used to measure the number of deaths; in general, or due to attributable sources in a population. Proportional mortality ratio is an estimate that is standardized to control for potential effects of variables.

**Rates. **

A rate is a certain quantity or amount of one thing being considered in relation to a unit of another, used for a standard measure. It is applied in determining a value describing one quantity in terms of another (Aitkin, 2009).

**Ratios**.

A ratio is a concise way of showing the connection between two quantities of something. In the statement of a ratio, the most formal way is by separating the two figures with a colon. The division sign is sometimes used but rarely. Mathematically, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers that are of the same kind; clearly indicating how many times the first number outweighs the other.

**Crude rates. **

One giving the total number of scenarios taking place in the whole population over a given period. It is without any reference to any of the persons or subgroups hailing from the entire population (Aitkin, 2009).

**Direct adjustments**

Direct adjustments are put into use when the test populace is large enough, that rates which are age specific within the populace are firm. It is mostly used in statements of fundamental information, for example, mortality.

**Indirect Adjustments**

Indirect standardization puts into use the population in reference to provide rates that are age specific (Salkind, 2010). Indirect standardization is put to use when the populace is of a small enough size that the numbers of events are also small. Standardization mortality ratios are more often than not utilized in epidemiology. This is to compare different test specimens reason being they are easy to enumerate. Moreover, they provide an estimate. When two events that are in relation to each other and cannot occur simultaneously, they are said to be, mutually exclusive. All the above events are not mutually exclusive because they can all occur simultaneously.

Reference

Leite, G. L. D., Picanço, M., Malfacini, J. A. M., & Galvan, T. (January 01, 2003). Factors affecting attack rate of whitefly on the eggplant. *Horticultura Brasileira, Brasília, 21, *2.)

Shaw, M. (2007). *The handbook of inequality and socioeconomic position*. Bristol: Policy.

Aitkin, M. A. (2009). *Statistical modelling in R*. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wang, J. W., & Lee, Elisa T. (2003). *Statistical Methods for Survival Data Analysis*. Wiley.

Crude death rate (per 1,000 populations) based on *World Population Prospects The 2008 Revision*, United Nations. Retrieved 22 June 2010

*The Medical Dictionary*, Medterms. Retrieved 22 June 2010

Salkind, N. J. (2010). *Encyclopedia of research design*. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage.

Schwab, M., & Thomson Gale (Firm). (2008). *Encyclopedia of cancer*. New York: Springer.

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