Posted: November 29th, 2013
Shi and Mayer – For the Record
Call to Negro America to March on Washington
1. What is Randolph’s goal in initiating a mark on Washington?
Philip Randolph’s aim in calling for a march to Washington was due to the presence of discrimination in the defense industries. His call to the Negro community to march was aimed at calling for equal inclusion within the defense agencies and the military in protection of the country form external aggression as the Negro community formed part of the American society despite the existent discrimination. His main aim was for President Roosevelt to issue an Executive Order enabling Negros to participate within the defense industries (Shi, & Holly, pp. 24).
2. What does Randolph suggest is the crisis for minorities?
Randolph described the crisis for minorities and smaller and races which were discriminated against as identical, he stated, “To American Negroes, it is the denial of jobs in Government defense projects. It is racial discrimination in Government departments. It is widespread Jim-Crowism in the armed forces of the Nation. While billions of the taxpayers’ money is being spent for war weapons, Negro workers are finally being turned away from the gates of factories, mines and mills—being flatly told, “NOTHING DOING.” Some employers refuse to give Negroes jobs when they are without “union cards,” and some unions refuse Negro workers union cards when they are “without jobs.” (Shi, & Holly, pp. 59). In essence, the denial of basic civil liberties by the government was a clear and utter violation of freedom for the minorities making the state undemocratic.
3. What is Randolph’s criticism of American democracy?
Randolph criticized the oppressions, which were instigated against black thus suppressing their freedoms and fundamental rights. He is of the view that a free and democratic society should be able to give all people within the society irrespective of their race and descent the opportunity to work within the government agencies. Hence, there should be a decree by the president abolishing the existent barriers that dwell on race in submission of service within the disciplined forces and other government agencies.
Women in War Industries
4. How were women judged by families and society during their tenure as factory workers?
Women were on high demand within the industries as they formed the only available part of labor for the country during the war. Despite the high demand for laborers, women were still regarded from a sexual perspective and as a cheap labor alternative (Shi, & Holly, pp. 45).
5. Was World War II a “watershed moment” for women? Why or why not?
World War 2 was a watershed moment for the women of the United States as they opted to join the industries as means to support their families after their husbands and sons who were their only source of support had left for war. The war made the women assume positions which were historically p been edged out for men within the society such as mechanics, locomotive operators among others. This became a turning point as women were gradually accustomed to roles other than taking car of the families and thus was forced to look for means to support their families.
Korematsu v. United States of America
6. How does Justice Black justify the internment of Japanese American citizens?
` Justice Black held that the conviction against Mr.Koremtasu was indeed constitutional as it was based on public necessity to ensure that the country and its residents were protected from espionage. Thus, the need to protect the sovereignty and freedom of the country form invasion overrode civil or individual rights thus Mr. Koremtasu was arrested as the eviction was aimed at reducing the possibilities of attack (Shi, & Holly, pp. 65).
7. What does Justice Jackson argue are the crimes of Japanese Americans who are arrested and interned? How is this is an example of the US government creating criminals?
Justice Robert Jackson in his dissent argued that the “defense measures will not, and often should not, be held within the limits that bind civil authority in peace,” where by it would be impractical to hold the military at the same constitutional standard as identical to other governmental arms. He argued that the actions of the military were sufficient and necessary form a military viewpoint in thwarting and preventing sabotage from foreigners with whom the country was at loggerheads with. Hence, the crimes of the arrested Americans of Japanese descent were due to their racial affiliation with the Japanese and their refusal to accept to the terms and condition issued by the United States Army (Shi, & Holly, pp. 67).
Shi, David E, & Holly A. Mayer. For the Record: A Documentary History of America. New York: W.W. Norton, 2010. Print.
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