Posted: October 17th, 2013
Flavoring Agents made from Aldehydes and Ketones
This paper looks to delve into the chemistry behind ketones and aldehydes as well as related compounds. The endeavor involved looking into the way their bonding influences how they react. It also considers the simple physical properties of these compounds including their reaction with other compounds, chemical structures and formulas. The paper also looked to establish the relationship and differences between natural butter and synthetic butter, natural raspberry and synthetic raspberry, and vanilla extract and pure vanilla. Finally, this paper endeavored to identify and a detailed description of the type of reactions that take place in Sn1, Sn2, E1, E2 reactions as well as Grignard reagents.
Flavoring Agents made from Aldehydes and Ketones
Flavoring agents are considered the largest compounds used as food additives. Beverage and food applications of flavoring agents include spice blends, fruits, nuts, wine flavoring agents, and vegetables. They may modify or magnify the aroma or taste of the intended product. There exists a wide variety of flavoring agents used for numerous purposes (Cooper, 2009). Examples of flavoring agents include alcohols, esters, protein hydrolysates, aldehydes, and ketones.
Aldehydes and Ketones are connected from the premise that they both possess a carbonyl group C=O. The main difference however is that the carbonyl carbon of ketones is bound by two carbon atoms. On the other hand, the carboxyl carbon of aldehydes is bound by one hydrogen atom. Hence, aldehydes place the carbonyl group at the terminal carbon end, while the ketone carbonyl group is always internal. Typically, simple aldehydes have an irritating and unpleasant odor. One flavoring agent made from aldehydes is Amyl Cinnamic Aldehyde. This compound is largely used in fixation of fragrances (Bloch, 2006). In addition, aldehydes are also used in commercial product fragrances such as deodorants, detergents, fabric softeners, shampoo, and soaps.
The other flavoring agent made from aldehydes is C8 Aldehyde (Octanol). This compound is also known as caprylaldehyde or octyl aldehyde. Flavoring agents made from this compound are used in detergents, soaps, as well as creams and light fragrances requiring a citrus character. It is used as a flavoring agent in foods such as baked goods, gelatins, and ice cream. The third flavoring agent used from aldehydes is Cinnamic Aldehyde (Cooper, 2009). This compound is used to make flavoring agents where cinnamon characters are desired. Though it can be extracted from cassia and cinnamon bark oils, Cinnamic Aldehyde is normally produced synthetically. In the United States and Europe, Cinnamic Aldehyde is mostly used in bakery goods, chewing gum, toothpaste, mouthwash and candy. Primarily, Cinnamic Aldehyde is unsaturated, and this makes it easy to react for creating many compounds that are in turn used in numerous fragrance compositions.
One flavoring agent made from ketones is acetone. Acetone accounts for the few compounds that exhibit infinite solubility in water as well as the capability of dissolving numerous organic compounds. This quality allows acetone to be removed when it is no longer needed due to its low boiling point. It is considered the most important industrial solvent and is used in products such as varnishes, resins, paints, nail polish removers, and coatings. The second ketone flavoring agent is Methyl ethyl ketone. This compound exists both in outdoor and indoor air. Methyl ethyl ketone in the air is produced through the photo oxidation of air pollutants such as certain hydrocarbons including butane. Primarily, ethyl ketone is implemented as a solvent in processes that involve cellulose acetate, resins, gums, and cellulose nitrate. Methyl ethyl ketone is also implemented in the rubber industry, paraffin wax production, glues and paint removers (Cooper, 2009).
Natural Butter vs Synthetic Butter
When compared to synthetic butter, natural butter is slightly higher saturated in fats at eight grams compared to five grams. In comparison, both natural and synthetic butter constitute a mixture of triglycerides with differing forms of fatty acids. This implies that no single chemical structure on natural or synthetic butter can be drawn. The breakdown of the glycerides leads to the release of free fatty acids and butyric in butter with the structural formula of CH3CH2CH2–COOH. The butyric acid in butter is responsible for the characteristic nauseating smell in rancid butter. The characteristic color of natural and synthetic butter comes from its chemical composition of carotene. The fatty acids in natural and synthetic butter range from oleic acid (CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH 31.9), myristic acid (CH3(CH2)12COOH 19.8), palmitic acid (CH3(CH2)16COOH 14.9), stearic acid (CH3(CH2)16COOH 14.9), linolenic acid (CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7CO) among others. The synthesis of butter primarily involves fermenting the butyrate represented by the following chemical reaction; C6H12O6 → C4H8O2 + 2CO2 + 2H2.
In accordance with a Harvard medical study, women are at more risk of succumbing to heart disease when they consumer synthetic butter compared to natural butter. On the other, consuming natural butter, helps increase the absorption of a wide array of nutrients in the food we consume. Natural butter comprises of a wider array of nutritional benefits than synthetic butter because they are manufactured. In terms of taste, natural butter tastes better than synthetic butter because it is capable of stimulating enhancing the taste buds and food flavors.
In addition, synthetic butter is capable of lowering HDL cholesterol in the human body whereas natural butter does not. Compared to natural butter, synthetic butter has been established to cause negative effect on the health of those who consume it. These include increasing the risk of succumbing to certain cancers five times compared to natural butter. Furthermore, synthetic butter reduces the quality of breast and decreases the response of insulin and immunity in the human body (Cooper, 2009). In this case, the most significant comparison between natural and synthetic butter is their chemical structure. The chemical composition of natural butter blends well with the fatty acids of our bodies. On the other hand, the chemical structure and composition of synthetic butter bears negative effects on the human body. In summary, one form of butter occurs naturally, and the other is man made. Statistically, they are both considered unhealthy for human consumption. Nevertheless, if one has to make a choice, they should opt to chose natural butter and consume it in small amounts.
Rasberry vs Synthetic Rasberry
Natural raspberry is normally obtained from synthesizing coumaroyl-CoA. The extraction of pure and natural raspberry ketone usually yields about 2-5 mg per kilo of raspberries. Therefore, consuming raspberry fruits leaves, or seeds does not yield sufficient metabolic boosting properties. The natural availability of raspberry ketone low and this makes it hard to obtain the needed yield in a leaf, fruit, or seed extract. The preferred form of raspberry ketone is hence produced synthetically to obtain raspberry ketone powder. Both natural and synthetic raspberry products offer exceptional antioxidants depending on the amount of raspberry contained. To put this perspective into consideration, in order to obtain 250 milligrams of pure raspberry, one is supposed to consume between sixty and five hundred pounds of raspberries. It therefore makes sense to synthesize the compound (Cooper, 2009).
Both natural and synthesized raspberry ketone contains ellagic acid. This is a form of compound performs anti-carcinogenic functions against various carcinogens. When consumed in the right amount, raspberry ketone has been proven capable of preventing high induced fat elevations in the body. Since it would be impossible to consume this much raspberry ketone from natural raspberry, this can only be achieved from consuming synthesized raspberry. Once consumed, the raspberry ketone compound induces the release of norepinephrine in the body. Consequently, norepinephrine induces glucose release from energy supplements as well as increasing the breakdown of triglycerides to separate fatty acids. The general representation of raspberry ketone is represented by the following;
Source: Examine .com. Raspberry Ketones
Vanilla Extract vs Pure Vanilla
Statistically, ninety-seven percent of the vanilla used for its various purposes is synthetic, and the use of pure vanilla is little. Vanilla extract is normally manufactured from eugenol (olive oil) or through breaking down lignin products from conifer such as picea and spruce. Chemically, pure vanilla possesses well over two hundred elemental chemicals that give it its characteristic smell and taste that make it impossible to mimic. The main compound that gives pure vanilla its characteristic taste is referred to as vanillin. Madagascan vanillin possesses three times more vanillin concentration. Pure vanilla requires no sugar be added and does not go bad. In essence, it ages like fine liquor. FDA standards require that pure vanilla contain fourteen ounces of vanilla beans and thirty-five percent alcohols in every gallon during extraction (Gmehling, 2004). Primarily, vanilla extract is synthesized from artificial flavorings that mostly attained from wood byproducts and normally contain chemicals. Differing palates between pure and vanilla extract led to vanilla extracts leading to a bitter aftertaste as well as a poor quality. In addition, extract vanilla requires twice as much flavoring for it to match the quality of pure vanilla.
The main objective of this paper was to investigate the chemistry behind ketones and aldehydes as well as related compounds. One of the major objectives involved conducting an investigation on what influence their reactions undergo upon bonding. This paper put into consideration the simple physical properties of these compounds including their reaction with other compounds, chemical structures and formulas.
In addition, this paper looked to establish the relationship and differences between natural butter and synthetic butter. This yielded the conclusion that both natural and synthetic butter constitute a mixture of triglycerides with differing forms of fatty acids. Natural raspberry and synthetic raspberry were also compared. The investigation revealed that the natural availability of raspberry ketone is low and this makes it hard to obtain the needed yield in a leaf, fruit, or seed extract. The preferred form of raspberry ketone is hence produced synthetically to obtain raspberry ketone powder.
Vanilla extract and pure vanilla were also compared. The finding maintained that chemically, pure vanilla possesses well over two hundred elemental chemicals that give it its characteristic smell and taste that make it impossible to mimic. The main compound that gives pure vanilla its characteristic taste is referred to as vanillin. Vanilla extract possesses three times more vanillin concentration. Finally, this paper endeavored to identify and a detailed description of the type of reactions that take place in Sn1, Sn2, E1, E2 reactions as well as Grignard reagents. Investigation on this established that Sn1, Sn2, E1, E2 reactions are determined by the type of reaction in question- either elimination reactions or substitution reactions.
Arlt, W., Gmehling, J., & Onken, U. (2009). Aldehydes and ketones, ethers. Frankfurt am Main: Dechema.
Bloch, D. R. (2006). Organic chemistry demystified. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Cooper, J. H. (2009). Flavoring agents of aldehydes and ketones. Chicago.
Gmehling, J., & Onken, U. (2004). Aldehydes and ketones. (Vapor-liquid equilibrium data collection.) Frankfurt am Main: DECHEMA.
Sittig, M. (2008). Polyacetal resins, aldehydes, and ketones. Park Ridge, N.J: Noyes Development Corp.
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