Posted: October 17th, 2013
Utilitarianism describes the art that draws the greatest good. It is a doctrine, which states that happiness can be described by the greatest number that it affects. Thus if an action make more people happy then it is considered good. As long as the action is of benefit to the majority, it is considered right while the minority may not be considered. Since what makes people happy is dependent on current circumstances, there are no definite moral principles.
Ethical Relativism is described as a theory that describes acts, which are considered right or wrong. Truth or lies change from one culture to another and vary in different situations. These are some of the values that each culture holds, which may be wrong in another culture. For instance eating bacon is considered as a taboo in Muslim cultures but is accepted in other cultures, or marring a cousin in one culture while it is not acceptable in another.
Objectivism relies on facts about reality rather than emphasis on feelings and beliefs in writing or art. For example, a decision regarding ones life should not be based on words in writing but should be based on realities that one might endanger his or her own life. It also states that truths on morals and worldly thing exist independently from the thinking of one’s mind or from one’s own perspective. The philosophy further suggests that man is a hero being, with pursuit of his happiness as the real meaning of his life, production becomes the splendor of his work.
Axiological ethics is a study on the criteria for judgment on issues and the values that people live on. Different cultures exist by different laws that govern their beliefs on issues and how they place judgment on issues affecting them. Its main idea is that judgment should be dependent on the value it holds, suggesting that the decision should consider goodness of the actions such as motive, the consequences and the action itself. For instance, before carrying out an action, one should be guided by questions such as whether the result will be good, or is the action good.
Psychological egoism is a doctrine that governs the pursuit of one’s own interest or welfare. It is a doctrine, which lays emphasis on individuality and proposes that one should worry about his or her own affairs before worrying about others. It suggests that human beings derive their motivation from self-interests. It also suggests that even actions meant for others are also driven by personal interest. More so, it suggests that people should worry about themselves before they think of others. For instance, a person could give out gifts in order to gain favor by other people.
Hedonism is a theory of devoting all the fine things in life. It lays emphasis on self-indulgences to result in pleasure. An individual seeks pleasure because he does not know the time of his demise. It suggests that the only good thing is pleasure, therefore, people should as much as possible eliminate pain and maximize of pleasure. For instance, a person who does not want to work hard for anything and only seeks pleasure.
1. When does multiculturalism seem to be positive feature of living in the world? When does multiculturalism appear to be on the wrong track, and why? Name an issue that we tend not to agree on —- based on merely cultural habits or attitudes
Multiculturalism has resulted in offsprings who regard themselves as neither inclining to one culture nor the other. This has erased the barriers that existed because of different cultures that aroused animosity and suspicion against each other. Multiculturalism is the face of globalization due to the co-existence and interaction between people of different cultures across the whole world. Multiculturalism has also enhanced exchange of ideas between cultures, which has led to many developments in standards of living.
However, the existence of different cultures has resulted in many problems such as racism and xenophobia. Racism has been because of the existence of people who regard others as inferior due to their skin color race and culture. This is evident after such races were given derogative descriptions. Different cultures existing in the same country or region have different beliefs, which are the basis for their different behavior. Each culture believes that their traditions and practices are better than those of other cultures are. This creates resentments between such tribes that often lead to conflicting issues.
Issues have been accrued because of the existence of different cultures that have drawn criticism as well as praise from different quarters in society. Each culture seems to have their attitude and habits that may not be accepted by other cultures.
For example, different people view the existence of Israel and the events of the Holocaust. The events of the Holocaust may be attributed to the existence of the Jews with the native Germans. This developed animosity among the ruling German class, who were offended by the Jews because of their thriving business and culture Xenophobia results from the existence of cultures who consider others as threats to their physical and economical existence. The Germans felt that the Jews culture allowed them to do better than them, leading to differences in attitudes towards each other.
Q2. What constitutes being a human-being— and what rights do you think such a creature should have. What responsibilities come with being human, if any?
A human being can be defined from many levels. He can be defined from the physical aspect, spiritual aspects, social and the intellect. A human being is not just flesh and blood but the mind and the soul, which separates him from other beings. A man is the most superior organism on earth because of his ability to survive in the most trivial circumstances. The major difference between man and other organisms especially animals is that he is able to interact with the world consciously while other animals use instincts that come naturally. A man is defined by his ability to be able to reason on issues, unlike an animal that lacks the ability to think and place judgment on issues. In addition, a man is defined by his ability to manipulate the surrounding to suite his needs, rather than fit himself according to the way nature dictates like other animals. More so, a human being unlike other animals has a spiritual need that he seeks to satisfy, where they believe in a supreme being. In addition, only human beings are capable of speech unlike other animals, which enables them to communicate and understand each other.
A human being has independence of thought, and has the capability of creating things. Therefore, man should be given a right to exercise his creativity as long as it is for a good course to the surrounding and other people around him. In addition, man should have a right to freedom of expressing themselves as well as living life, as each individual feels right.
With his intelligence, a man is responsible for many things in the world, since he is the only one capable of judgment and reasoning to come up with solution. Any action he does will have a consequence, and it is up to him to think responsibly about judgments that he makes. One of the responsibilities includes taking care of their young ones just like other animals. Man, as the most superior among all the beings of the universe, has the responsibility of taking care of the environment around him. He is responsible for where he lives, as he is solely dependant on the environment for his survival. As much as he is able to manipulate the surrounding, he should do so responsibly.
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