Posted: November 27th, 2013
The eighth chapter
The eighth chapter of multicultural issues in criminal justice by Marsha Tarver delves into how crime is measured and in particular, the official reports present in government plus other reports. The official reports can only be obtained from police agencies and the records from the federal bureau of investigations. The federal bureau of investigation records and stores reports of crime that are used to have an estimate on the crime rates of a certain area. These reports are uniform crime reports (UCR) and the national incident-based reporting system (NIBRS). The federal bureau of investigation also records and stores the homicides that have occurred on the United States of America soil in a report known as the supplemental homicide reports (SHR) (Tarver, 2002).
There are flaws in relying on these reports to come up with a clear picture of the crime in a certain area. The first is that they tend not to be accurate. The information provided by the federal bureau of investigation department is based upon the reported cases and the ones that the police officials have found out. However, there are a myriad of criminal activities that occur and go on unreported. This will end up in depicting a false impression on the number of criminal activities in a certain area. Another flaw is that it does not give reliable information on the crime rates in a given area. If the police happen to carry out a crackdown on certain criminal activity say prostitution in a given town, then the number of arrests will end up increasing. This will tend to reflect an increase in the rate of prostitution in the given area whereas in the real sense it just means that more arrests were made at that particular time.
Other reports than are used to measure criminal activities include the self-report statistics. These reports are obtained by conducting questionnaires or asking persons to give details regarding the number of times that they have committed crime. Such reports can be obtained from the national youth survey (NYS). The survey is conducted on youths and their parents. The surveys promise privacy to the respondents to gain trust from the respondents.
The ninth chapter
The ninth chapter delves into the issue of Law Enforcement and its effect on various aspects of multicultural issues. It goes to discuss in detail the administrative Services, patrol and investigative Services. Different multicultural and indigenous communities relate with the law enforcement agencies differently. This is based on the communication, how the two understand each other, the mutual respect among the two parties, tolerance and trust. The administrative service of the law enforcement agencies are the arms of the law that interact with the communities on a one on one basis.
The administrative services of the law enforcement agencies entail conducting investigations on major and minor crimes in the communities within their jurisdictions. All the offenses committed in a particular area and notified to the relevant authorities are investigated to solve the crimes and punish the perpetrators. The crimes that are investigated include murders including crimes of passion, self-defense and cold blood. Sexual assault is also investigated as an administrative service (Tarver, 2002).
Robbery and burglary cases when reported are designated to particular detectives who follow on the crimes to establish whether there are patterns. All instances of fraud including identity theft, internet swindles, forgery, and credit card theft are also investigated against. The law enforcement agencies also conduct investigations on elder abuse, child abuse, arson, and missing person’s cases. The police administrative services also provide the relevant information pertaining to the reported criminal incidents. The law enforcement agencies have a desk where all the reported cases are recorded and filed for future referencing.
The tenth chapter
The court system of the United States America is mostly unique. This is because it entails to branches that coexist in harmony under the federal system. The main purpose of the court system is to enforce the established laws, deliberating on the cases brought forth, and punishing offenders whom it deems guilty in accordance with the offense committed. The two branches are the federal courts and the state courts. The federal courts mainly handle cases that concern the federal government. The state courts deliberate on mainly criminal cases. The pretrial process is where the guilty pleas serve as exchange bargaining tools. Statistics show that over ninety percent of all the criminal cases do not get to the trials. This is because they get to be disposed of after the defendants offer to plead guilty rather than be tried in a court of law (Tarver, 2002).
The defendants involve their defense attorneys to reach an agreement with the prosecutors after which they discuss on the details of the agreement. During the pretrial process, the prosecutors offer the defendant through his defense attorney to minimize on the charges against him to have a more lenient sentencing if the defendant pleads guilty. If the deal suits the defendant, then the case does not necessarily have to go through a full trials process. In certain cases, tactful defense attorneys can use early forensic works coupled by legal strategies to persuade the prosecution into presenting the evidence during a preliminary hearing and not on the usual jury proceedings.
The procedures that are followed involve the prosecution deliberating on whether there is the need to do so. When the prosecution sees on the need to do so, they file a formal charge on the lower courts. During this time, the defendant is eligible to and has a right to a lawyer. The lower courts then review the charges to establish whether there was probable cause. On sighting probable cause, the defendant is arraigned for the first appearance and the court proceedings ensue.
The eleventh chapter
The sentencing procedures that the court system follows are not definite and vary from judge to judge and the type of case. However, the sentencing is dependant on two aspects. The first is the gravity of the offense. Different offenses carry different sentences. There are those offenses that are referred to as minor offenses that carry a sentences of less than a year, whereas there those offenses that carry life sentencing. The second aspect is the criminal history of the offenders. First time offenders usually carry sentences that are more lenient and can even be pardoned. Multiple offenders on the other hand, carry sentences that are more punitive. This is to both punish the offender and send a warning to other would be offenders.
Under special circumstances, the offenders are put on probation. The purpose of this is to check on the behavior of the offender whether he or she has reformed. During the probation period, the court gives the offender certain rules, regulations and conditions, which the offender is supposed to meet and maintain. The conditions are more stringent than those of a free person are. The offender is then supervised by a probation officer to check on whether he or she abides by the conditions set out to him (Tarver, 2002).
Parole involves the early release of prisoners who had been sentenced earlier for a much longer term. The inmates are allowed to finish the rest of the imprisonment term in the society and not under confinement. The release does not guarantee or spell absolute freedom for the inmate because he or she is usually given conditions to follow that are supervised by the courts. The parole can be revoked if the inmate does not abide by the set conditions.
Tarver, M. (2002). Multicultural issues in criminal justice. New York, NY: Prentice hall.
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