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City & State


Proper Event Planning


Events in the 21st of the century are known as major events and market. Therefore, the events are not only for people to gather, to celebrate, to worship, to remember or to socialize (Douglas and Derrett, 2001) but they now impact on the country’s economic growth. Most major or mega events have become known as part of the culture for some group of millennial such as rave festivals, rock concerts etc. Major events have benefited the country’s economic factor significantly by attracting lots of tourist around the world and social media. One of the major components to create magical events is the design, which excluded from the basic model of event management. Having a perfect design of the event will influence the reputation of the event and creates “wow” factors. In this blog post, I will demonstrate the similarities and differences regarding multiple structures of event design. Moreover, I will describe the Ultra Music Festival that I have chosen and explain about their “wow” factors. 

Ultra music festival

According to the official website of Ultra Music Festival, Ultra was founded in 1997 in Miami, the United States by Russell Faibisch. Faibisch is a co-founder, an executive producer, or CEO who start producing electronic music events to held first Ultra Music Festival in 1999 in Miami. I chose the Ultra Music Festival as an event that consists of various “wow” factors. Firstly, Ultra Festival hold in many different countries such as Australia, United States, Singapore, and South Korea (Honeycombers Editorial 2016). I went to Singapore Ultra Festival in 2016, and I was very impressed with this event. There were a bunch of people who came for DJs and its popularity of the event. I could also see many foreigners came to the event, and we all have fun together. Ultra Music Festival has greater accessibility compared to the other events because they play in 25 different countries annually. Moreover, there is a live stream people can watch through YouTube and enjoy electronic music online. 

Discussion about why your case study events have a WOW factor

            The Ultra Music Festival is among the largest global dance spectacles. Since its inception in 1999, the event has attracted huge audiences in major cities around the world. In particular, most electric dance music lovers turn up annually. As part of the presentation, music lovers are treated to five days of the best electric dance music (Honeycombers Editorial 2016). A youthful population that is always passionate provides a charged atmosphere at the events. The Ultra Music Festival held in Singapore in 2016 was one of the best events ever hosted in the country. The festival attracted performers and an audience from all over the world. The organizers of the event did well in making an event a success. The festival displayed all the attributes of the wow factor despite some challenges.

            To begin with, the design of the stage was a spectacle. The focus is one of the principles of event design. The principle states that the event organizers should ensure the attention of the audience is on the performance (Honeycombers Editorial 2016). The stage of the event was huge, and all the participants had a good view of the happenings. In addition, it was equipped with gigantic screens that kept the audience mesmerized with different transitions of color. The stage was also fitted with devices that erupted in fire and smoke to maintain the intrigue on the audience. The audience had their eyes focused on the stage throughout the event.

            In music events, sound is a critical factor. ‘Why’ is one of the W’s in the 5W’s. The ‘W’ is the main reason for attending the event. Individuals attend the Ultra Music Festival mainly for the electric dance music (Honeycombers Editorial 2016). True to the calling, the sound system of the event was one of the highlights. All sections of the audience were entertained by the radiation of the music from the equipment that was strategically mounted at different sections. The sound engineers of the event exceeded the expectation in making it memorable to the music lovers. The ‘Why’ of the event was answered because the audience was satisfied.

            In a five-day event, the expectations of the audience should be managed effectively to eliminate the possibility of boredom. Shape as one of the principles of event design highlights the psychology of the audience. The event organizers did their best in managing the psychology of the audience using various means. For instance, during the day the intensity of the music was regulated so as not to exhaust the audience mentally and physically. At night, the tempo of the music was raised to keep the audience captivated. Additionally, the best performers and music was saved for the last day of the festival. Having the best performers at the beginning stages of the event would have killed the anticipation and the mood of the audience in the festival.

            The event organizers also did well in anticipating the magnitude of the event. The capacity of the venue was enough for the thousands of people who turned up for the event. Resources such as food courts and lavatory facilities were sufficient for all. In addition, the security deployed for crowd control did not encounter any challenges. The event organizers were spot on regarding scale. The overall coordination of the event showed that the organizers had prior experience.

Overview of theory relating to the design of events

            According to Goldblatt (1997), there are 5W questions that must be used to analyze the format of an event design, which is why it happens? Who is it about? When it take place? Where it take place? What happens? The 5 W is considered as magical 5W because with small amount of words can create description of whole main story of the event. This 5W needs to be answered before an event is attempted: why? Who? What? Want? (Goldblatt and Nelson 2001). Brown, Steve and James (2012, p. 54) stated that the structure of the typical event management organization, and the job description for the typical event manager, fails to include the ‘design’ component. Brown, Steve and James (2012, p60-61) further explore that there are 5 principles of event design which is scale, shape, focus, timing and building. Scale means matching the scale of the activity to the venue for the audience can see and understand what is being presented. Shape of the events describe as understanding the audience psychology such as the way they behave or how they respond to the site layout. This observation is to ensure every seats/space of the event’s layout is fulfilled. Focus is where audiences or participants give attention to the certain shape and structure. In addition, people respond to movements and lightings naturally. Therefore, it is important to design the event in aspects of lighting, movements, and structure (Brown, Steve and James 2012, p. 61). Timing should be carefully considered in event because the flow of event plays an important role. Therefore, participants would not be bored or tired during the event. Addition to timing, the size of venue should be suitable for the event. If the venue is too small and lots of participants joined, they will hesitate to participate event again and there could be emergencies.

Similarities and differences from 2/3 authors given

            The works of Goldblatt and Nelson (2001) strike a high similarity with that of Brown, Steve, and James (2012). The 5W’s and five principles of event design are similar. One of the 5w’s is Why. The ‘W’ provides an explanation for holding the event. The audience attends the event for a specific reason that is the answer to the question (Schüßler, Dobusch & Wessel 2014). The ‘W’ is the same as focus. The focus is one of the five principles of event design. The audience pays attention to a specific reason that brought them to the event. For instance, in a music event, the audience is focused on the sound produced (Simon, Parker Stockport & Sohal 2017). Therefore, an event organizer is supposed to make sure the sound is satisfactory. The other essentials outlined by the event scholars differ. A strict adherence to one guideline while ignoring the other might leave out some essentials required to make the event a success.

Why I chose this event for my case study?

            I chose the event for my case study as it is one of the best I have ever attended. I was mesmerized by the organization and the attention to detail exhibited throughout the festival. The crowd was sad when the event ended (Yeoman et al. 2016). The event had many highlights, and the wow factor was displayed. The organizers of the event demonstrated a good understanding of what is expected of an event of such magnitude. Attending the event was time and money well spent. In the future, I hope to be in a position of organizing one to such levels of success.


            Organizing the perfect event requires proper planning. Many factors are supposed to be aligned to make the event a success. A good organizer analyzes all the possible outcomes. A plan is put in place to circumnavigate any challenge that may arise. In addition, organizers must always do their best to make the event memorable to the audience. A proper understanding of the characteristics of the expected audience is critical. Outcomes to excite the crowd should be lined up. However, the organization should be careful not to overdo the excitement. The event host should also avoid any happening that can cause crowd control challenges. For instance, unexpected explosions might scare the crowd and cause a stampede. Crowd control is one of the main challenges in an event. Advance ticket sales are made to approximate the expected number of attendants. Security personnel are recruited by the expected number of attendants. The personnel required are trained specifically to handle the crowd in events. Apart from crowd control, security is also used to protect the audience from external and internal aggressors. The intended objectives of the event should be met. The audience is supposed to leave the event  satisfied for the time and resources spent. The Ultra Music Festival met the expectations of the audience. Events lasting more than a day are difficult for organizers. The likelihood for unexpected outcomes is higher. For instance, massive equipment failure might occur due to prolonged usage. A good organizer can anticipate and cover all contingencies.


AEA Consulting 2006, ‘Why festivals matter’, Thundering hooves: maintaining the global competitive edge of Edinburgh’s festivals, AEA Consulting, Edinburgh, pp. 6– 21, retrieved 30 June 2018

Berridge, G. (2012). Event Experience: A Case Study of Differences Between the Way in Which Organizers Plan an Event Experience and the Way in Which Guests Receive the Experience. Journal Of Park & Recreation Administration, 30(3), 7-23.

Brown, Steve and James, Jane 2012, ‘Event design and management: ritual sacrifice?’ in Festival and Event Management: An international arts and culture perspective, Yoeman, Ian; Robertson, Martin; Ali-Knight, Jane; Drummond, Siobhan & McMahon-Beattie, Una (eds.), Routledge, London.

Cameron, Neil 2013, The Cultural Development Handbook: An A-Z guide to designing successful arts events in the community, Centre for Creative Communities, Hobart.

Event Scotland 2014, ‘Chapter 6: The programme’ in Event Management: A practical guide, retrieved 31 Jan 2017, < management-a-practical-guide/ >.

Goldblatt J. 2008, Chapter 2 ‘Models of Global Event Leadership’ in Special Events: The Roots And Wings Of Celebration [e-book]. Hoboken, N.J. : John Wiley & Sons, 2008.

Honeycombers Editorial, 2016. Ultra Singapore 2016 review: The highs and lows of the Ultra Music Festival. Accessed 31 Jul. 2018.

Richards, G & Palmer, R 2010, Chapter 3 ‘Event Vision and Programming’ in Eventful Cities: Cultural Management and Urban Revitalisation, Butterworth-Heineman, Oxford

Schüßler, E., Dobusch, L. and Wessel, L., 2014. Backstage: Organizing events as proto-institutional work in the popular music industry. Schmalenbach Business Review66(4), pp.415-437.

Simon, A., Parker, A., Stockport, G. and Sohal, A., 2017. Towards an adapted MHP strategic capabilities model for moderating challenges to quality music festival management.International Journal of Event and Festival Management8(2), pp.151-171.

Yeoman, I., Robertson, M., Ali-Knight, J., Drummond, S. and McMahon-Beattie, U. eds., 2012. Festival and events management. Routledge.

Thematic Comparison: Dexter Filkins’ “Atonement” and Chris Heath’s “18 Tigers”

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Thematic Comparison: Dexter Filkins’ “Atonement” and Chris Heath’s “18 Tigers”

The articles, “Atonement” by Dexter Filkins, and “18 Tigers, 17 Lions, 8 Bears, 3 Cougars, 2 Wolves, 1 Baboon, 1 Macaque, and 1 Man Dead in Ohio,” by Chris Heath comprise disparate narratives with similar underlying themes. Filkins’ article delves into the adverse implications that the Iraq War imposed on the protagonist, Lu Lobello. Due to his involvement in the struggle, Lobello becomes susceptible to issues such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD. On the other hand, Heath’s story focuses on the impact of a man’s actions after he frees wild animals from an enclosure. As an outcome, the individual is forced to grapple with the threat that his actions have caused to the entire town despite his demise in the narrative. The stories use elements of nonfiction to establish the law’s superiority in all contexts as an original theme.

One element of nonfiction used in both articles to illustrate the preeminence of law in society is the presentation of facts. In the story, “18 Tigers, 17 Lions, 8 Bears, 3 Cougars, 2 Wolves, 1 Baboon, 1 Macaque, and 1 Man Dead in Ohio,” the author notes that 50 animals were executed because of the man that released them (Heath). The rationale for such an action, irrespective of its cruelty, was attributed to laws pertaining to the possession of animals. Indeed, the “freed” animals were dangerous creatures that only served as attractions to people interested in seeing them. As such, it was mandatory to place them in standard yet safe settings. Filkins’ article uses the interviewee’s experiences to show that the soldiers had to abide by the law irrespective of the nature and consequences of their actions.

Another element applied in the articles is the utilization of conflict. Conflict is central to the thematic subject due to the way it develops the narratives’ plot. Heath’s article presents a dispute between the antagonist and the enclosure laws. From a personal perspective, it is possible to assume that the man viewed his role in the army as a wrong and the animals as captives. As such, he conflicted with the laws and released the animals. In “Atonement,” Lobello’s feelings of guilt and his Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are derived from authorized actions that conflicted with his moral compass (Filkins). Regardless of the repercussions that the lead characters encounter, conflict plays a critical role since it makes the narratives and the actions comprehensible and relatable.

The last element of nonfiction incorporated in the stories constitutes the use of real-life characters. Heath’s narrative functions as a true story that recounts the actions of Terry Thompson, primarily his release of exotic animals that he had once owned despite the legal restrictions prohibiting such exploits, and the consequences of this action. Consequently, Filkins’ story focuses on Lu Lobello, a real-life character that participated in the Iraq War and departed with issues that the government had failed to address despite the heroic nature of his deeds (Filkins). The use of real-life characters functions effectively because it informs the reader regarding events that were possibly absent from their recollection. In respect to the narratives, the element illustrates the extent to which laws surpass people’s indispensable actions without consideration of their results.

The narratives, “Atonement,” by Dexter Filkins, and “18 Tigers, 17 Lions, 8 Bears, 3 Cougars, 2 Wolves, 1 Baboon, 1 Macaque, and 1 Man Dead in Ohio,” by Chris Heath, possess differing narratives that establish an underlying theme. The authors use elements of nonfiction such as the provision of facts, the aspect of conflict, and the application of real-life characters to present the preeminence of the law in the society. Despite the disparate nature of these stories, the characters explored by Filkins and Heath experience adverse consequences that result from their conflict with the law. To this end, the nonfiction dimensions that the authors apply illustrate the fixed nature of rules and their implications on people who decide to follow or ignore them.

Works Cited

Filkins, Dexter. “Atonement.” The New Yorker, 29 Oct. 2012. Accessed 31 Jul. 2018.

Heath, Chris. “18 Tigers, 17 Lions, 8 Bears, 3 Cougars, 2 Wolves, 1 Baboon, 1 Macaque, and 1 Man Dead in Ohio.” GQ, 6 Feb. 2012. Accessed 31 Jul. 2018.






Question A

            The ambitions of Nicholas II triggered the Russo-Japanese War. During his tenure, Nicholas II wanted to extend the influence of the Russian empire to the Far East. Russia was bullish about its war prowess because it considered Japan as a weak opponent.[1] However, the military and industrial development of Japan at the time had expanded significantly. After 18 months, the Japanese forces subdued the Empire’s army. The consequences of the war manifested in different ways to the Russian population and the regional geopolitics. In particular, the Russian regime lost its popularity and legitimacy in the eyes of the public.

                The war was costly to the Russian taxpayer. The economy of the country suffered a significant loss, hence, forcing the government to increase taxes on the population. In addition, people lost jobs because of the closure of many producers and manufacturers. The living conditions of the Russian people were significantly harsh. As an outcome, the people began to revolt against the government by engaging in radical approaches. Aside from the nature of their living situations, rebellions were the result of the humiliation that the Russian Empire suffered despite its strong military capacity.

The defeat forced Russia to recognize Japan as an economic and industrial power. In fact, Russia’s actions may have led to the development of the Treaty of Portsmouth.[2] The agreement asserted the dominance of Japan and established its control over Korea. Due to the implications of the accord, the economic interests of Russia in Korea suffered greatly. Additionally, Russia’s disgrace imposed a debilitating impact on its geopolitical dominance, forcing it to surrender its military base in China to the Japanese.

Question B

            The Second World War, which occurred in 1939 and ended in 1945, was a contest between the Allies and the Axis powers. The Axis powers were Italy, Japan, and Germany. On the other hand, the allied nations were Russia, Britain, and France.[3] The war’s primary trigger was the assault of Germany on Poland. However, other intricate factors that involved Germany’s relations with other European countries were responsible for the incident.

            The First World War, which ended in 1918, was primarily due to Germany’s actions. Consequently, discussions began on sanctions to deter the nation from further armed engagements.[4] Heads of States and Governments met severally to discuss the punishment to mete out to Germany. As reparation for the war, the Treaty of Versailles ordered the country to return territories that it had taken in the Franco-Prussian War. However, Germany felt aggrieved for the international condemnation as well as the nature of the Treaty’s conditions.

Furthermore, the ascendancy of Adolf Hitler to power contributed considerably to the start of the War. Hitler took over leadership at a time when the effects of the Versailles Treaty were devastating the German economy.[5] The unemployment rate was skyrocketing, and there was a mood of frustration all over the nation. Hitler took advantage of the moment by projecting hope to the people. After assuming headship over the Nazi Party, Hitler began a reign of dictatorship in the veil of simple solutions to the nation’s challenges.

            Between 1929 and 1939, the global economy experienced the adverse impacts of the Great Depression. The economic downturn was also a significant cause of the incident.[6] The poverty levels in Japan and the massive unemployment in Germany triggered anger and disapproval. In that regard, the masses became easy targets for dictatorial regime manipulations, allowing them to utilize the people’s displeasure with their governments for control.

            The policy of appeasement also caused the war. The appeasement policy was a thoughtful decision taken by some leaders in Europe to make concessions to the aggressive powers to avoid conflicts.[7] Several British Prime Ministers adopted the plan with the chief proponent being Neville Chamberlain. The leaders readily adopted the concessions because many nations had not forgotten the trauma caused by the First World War. The policy helped in averting wars in the short term. However, the overwhelming effect of the approach on Germany caused a shift in diplomatic efforts as illustrated by the country’s invasion of Poland.

Question C

            Winston Churchill prominently used the term, “Iron Curtain,” in one of his speeches. In the statement, Churchill was referring to the boundary that divided Eastern and Western Europe.[8] The iron curtain also symbolized the blockage applied by the Soviet Union, whose primary goal was to restrict the country’s territories from contacting the West. Winston Churchill was advocating for the freedom of speech and peaceful coexistence in Europe. The speech crystallized the situation that was facing Western Democracies and the United States at the time. Additionally, it forecasted the Cold War and suggested it as the best way to preempt World War III.

            To the American audience, the speech was enlightening on the political difficulties in Europe. Winston Churchill was categorical that the democratic West should not repeat the same mistakes from the World War I and II.[9] Therefore, the speech encouraged the amassment of nuclear weapons by the United States. Churchill thought that deterrence was the best way to avert future wars. The speech spoke against the American tradition of isolation. A challenge in Europe would eventually affect the United States and the whole world in extension.

Question D

            Globalization is the process of integration between companies and governments from all over the world. In recent times, globalization has expanded rapidly because of the advancements in communication technology and transport.[10] On the other hand, internationalization is the process of planning and implementation of services and products that are easily adaptable to specific languages and cultures. Internationalization emphasizes interactions between certain nations whereas globalization contextualizes the whole world.


Chartwell Trust. The Sinews of Peace (‘Iron Curtain Speech’): Churchill, 2018

Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. New York: Routledge, 2016.

Locke, John. “Two Treatises on Government (1680-1690).” Lonang Institute. Accessed August 3, 2018.

Yale Law School. Part XV. Miscellaneous Provisions. New Haven: Yale Law School, 2008.

1. Yale Law School, Part XV. Miscellaneous Provisions (New Haven: Yale Law School, 2008),

[2] Ibid

[3] John Locke. “Two Treatises on Government: 1680-1690,” Lonang Institute, accessed August 3, 2018.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Chartwell Trust. The Sinews of Peace (‘Iron Curtain Speech’): Churchill, 2018

[6] Ibid.

[7] Chartwell Trust. The Sinews of Peace (‘Iron Curtain Speech’): Churchill, 2018

[8] Ibid.

[9] Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan (New York: Routledge, 2016), 128.

[10] Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan (New York: Routledge, 2016), 128.


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            The death penalty is a topic that has created huge divisions among different factions.A significant proportion supports this practice while an equal number reject it. Within the United States, approximately thirty-three states still allow the death penalty. The best position on this matter is to allow the death penalty to be legalized in all the countries. Several reasons support the argument that the death penalty should be reinstated in all political jurisdictions. It is imperative to argue that the death penalty is constitutional. Applying capital punishment has the effect of deterring citizens from indulging in serious crimes. The possibility of death hinders the likelihood of a person engaging in criminal behavior, and it establishes capital punishment as a credible deterrent.  

            Capital punishment is an excellent deterrent for recidivism. The concept refers to the rate at which previously convicted people revert to committing crimes after serving their sentences (Bandes 19). If capital punishment were already implemented, such repeat offenders would be executed, and this would discourage most criminals from engaging in illegal activity (Bandes 26). A portion of the proponents may argue that there is insufficient proof that using deterrence will work in lowering crime rates. Part of this reluctance originates from the lengthy nature of a death penalty sentence. Some prisoners take several years before the government executes them. The quality of the process has the effect of watering down the impact of deterrence since punishments meted swiftly are more effective. Even though the death penalty has successfully been used to deter criminal activity, the efficacy levels would rise if the legal process were hastened, rather than having prisoners wait in death row for an extended amount of time.

            Another reason for supporting the death penalty is that it is an excellent source of delivering retribution. Accordingly, capital punishment ensures that the society has a moral balance by restoring justice. Capital punishment allows the perpetrator to pay the cost corresponding to the damage done to the victim (Dow and Dow 56). When an individual perpetrates a crime, it interferes with the natural order of society. Significant crimes can kill people, disrupt peace, and interfere with civil liberties (Hatch and Walsh 83). Extending the death penalty as the ultimate establishment creates a sense of order to society, and satisfactorily punishes the perpetrator for their illegal behavior.

Retribution also ensures that the afflicted family members receive justice for their relatives and friends. Some people may perceive this as revenge. However, this reprisal is not driven by hatred; instead, the desire for justice as well as the spirit of lex talionis inspires it. The death penalty restores balance after criminals perpetrate certain crimes. On the other hand, society perceives capital punishment as an inhuman and unethical practice (Sigler 20). Opponents of the death penalty argue that the practice violates the right of every man to enjoy life to its fullest. Every human being has an equal opportunity to live, and therefore, the legislature should not formulate any law should that can interfere with such a right.

Despite the ethical concerns that encompass the death penalty, using it as a retributive measure in deterring crime has its proponents. Firstly, the execution of criminals reduces the level of recidivism due to the fear that human beings possess regarding death. Secondly, the death penalty acts as a restorative mechanism by establishing moral balance, especially in respect to the imbalances created by the implications of crime in society. Lastly, the death penalty is a utilitarian concept that advocates for the delivery of justice for the majority since crimes tend to cause pain and harm among innocent people and their respective families.

Works Cited

Bandes, Susan A. “What Executioners Can – and Cannot – Teach Us About the Death Penalty.” Criminal Justice Ethics, vol.35, no. 3, 2016, pp. 183-200.

Dow, David R., and Mark Dow. Machinery of Death: The Reality of America’s Death Penalty Regime. Routledge, 2014.

Hatch, Virginia Leigh, and Anthony Walsh. Capital Punishment: Theory and Practice of the Ultimate Penalty. Oxford University Press, 2016.

Sigler, Mary. “Principle and Pragmatism in the Death Penalty Debate.” Criminal Justice Ethics, vol. 37, no. 1, 2018, pp. 72-86.

Graphic Design

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Graphic Design

The discipline of graphic design can be characterized as the art of choosing and designing the proper visual elements with the aim to carry a particular message to an audience. Thus, graphic design can also be described as visual communications as this term indicates its purpose of giving form to the specific data. An essential function of the graphic designer is to connect the visual and verbal elements into a compelling combination. Graphic design is hence a collaborative discipline that was formed as a result of different artistic movements.

To begin with, it should be mentioned that the development of graphic design as a discipline has been closely connected to the technological innovations, societal demands, and the visual creativity of artistic movements. Graphic design has been used in different forms throughout the worldwide history. Examples of graphic design can be seen in the works of ancient Chinese, Egyptian, and Greek artists as well as the following artworks of the Impressionists. Then, in the late 19th century, the discipline of graphic design developed as a separate profession in the West, in part dues to the job specialization process that transpired there, and in part as a result of technological development and spreading of commercial opportunities during the period of the Industrial Revolution (Dabner et al.).

As a matter of fact, it is considered that Impressionists designed an art model that increased artistic freedom in graphic design. Thus, the Impressionists developed the particular art rules. Those rules included a choice of lines, subject matter, the structure as well as color, light, and shade (Fénéon and Thomson). In general, the Impressionists developed the new approaches of seeing the world that is different from the previous movement in which the items were mostly performed in an allegorical way. Thus, prior to the period of Impressionism, the landscapes and portraits were quite realistic, but ironically, they were affectedly represented.

It can be seen that the Impressionists attempted to transform the generally adopted patterns of art. They did this examining the shifting impressions of motion, color, shade and also time passing and then represented those elements on canvas (Fénéon, and Thomson). For example, considering Woman with a Parasol painted by Claude Monet, one can note that the author materially applied the lines and provided the audience with the vivid representation of the entire scene. The appliance of lines and the whole manner is unusual to the previous art movements, and it laid a basis for the further development of graphic design. It is generally considered that the evolution of graphic design reveals the contemporary art movement while the graphic designers borrowed a lot from the Japanese print and Impressionism (Fénéon, and Thomson).

At the same time, it is considered that graphic design developed under the influence of Ukiyo-e, which is a genre of art that emerged in Japan. The artists of Ukiyo-e created woodblock prints and paintings of different items. The style of Impressionism has been developed under the influence of Ukiyo-e that is considered as a prototype of graphic design. From the 1870s Ukiyo-e became a notable movement in art and had a significant influence in the early Impressionists and thus on the graphic design (Pérez-Arantegui et al. 98). Thus, the direct link between Impressionism and graphic design seems to be evident.

Currently, the discipline of graphic design actively incorporated the art elements that were firstly introduced by the Impressionists. The modern discipline of graphic design applied a lot from the Impressionists. Thus, as Impressionism shook up the art establishment and became the widely recognized, there is sufficient enough reason to acknowledge the legacy of the Impressionists.

With respect to the discipline of Graphic Design within the context of Post Modernism, it can be said that Graphic Design is aligned to the essential tenets of Post Modernism. Post Modernism was in fact developed as a response to Modernism. In other words, Post Modernism was a way that people used to critique and also carry further the discussion on Post Modernism. Indeed, this notion of furthering ideas can be seen in Graphic Design, as the discipline thrives on the continuation of ideas based on what is happening. Therefore, a Graphic Designer working in the era of Modernism or who finds themselves informed by the ideas of Modernism will work in a completely different way from a Designer whose work is informed by ideas of Post Modernism. This is because artists who are influenced by the era of Post Modernism typically have their work founded in ideas of experimentation with form, processes, and techniques. Thus, it can be posited and argued that Graphic Design as a discipline finds its impetus in the ideas of Post Modernism.

The primary purpose of Graphic Design is to communicate. Thus, in considering its evolution across the years, one notes that the evolution must also be understood in light of the changes in communication methods. Perhaps the most significant change in the field of Graphic Design has been its adoption of various modes or channels of getting audiences. Technological advances as well as the internet have revolutionized the ways in which Graphic Designers meet their target audiences. The other significant change is with regard to the tools of work. Graphic Designers now have newer and sophisticated technology with which they practice their art. While Graphic Design was limited to actual drawing and sketching, with the advent of technological modes of design, Graphic Designers can now use applications such as Adobe Photoshop to enrich their designs. It can also be argued, as Lupton and Miller (350) does, that the main event that influenced the recent changes in Graphic Design is the introduction and adoption of the internet into the work. Further, there has been a notable movement toward minimalism as an aesthetic.

It is not possible to say—with finality—the trends that are most practiced across the globe as far as the field of Graphic Design is concerned. In fact, the field of Graphic Design is progressing at such a fast rate that a conclusive scan of all the trends is impossible. Even so, there a few trends that are generally said to be embraced in many parts of the globe. As Lupton and Miller (351) proposes, some of the current trends in Graphic Design include the adoption of gradients, responsive logos, the use of photography, the use of bold typefaces, and the use of various shades in the same piece of work. It is Celhay and Trinquecoste’s contention that the single attribute that runs through the current trends is the rejection of all the traditional ideas about Graphic Design (1015). Indeed, the current trends harken to the beginnings of the era of Post Modernism as far as rejection of norms is concerned. In the future, one can indeed postulate that the trends that will be adopted will be those that make it possible for the target audience to interact with the work. The factors that will lead to an increase of interactivity in Graphic Design include the proliferation of the Internet, the globalization of financial markets, and the need to tailor work fit for each individual consumer. Thus, to conclude, one can maintain that the future of Graphic Design is more interactive.

Before technological advancements such as desktop publishing were rolled out in the 1980’s artist made use of traditional methods such as the use of x—acto knives to literally cut and paste elements that they wanted to use on their artwork. Artists had to manually cut them down and move them by hand instead of using clicking on an image and sliding over with a mouse. Other tools that were used in the past are the drawing tables. They are useful even today and essential when coming up with quick ideas by hand (Sinfield, p.57-64). Designers made use of the higher—end versions and swiveling T—squares that made drawings and parallel lines straight and efficient. Additionally, artists made use of tweezers that were utilized for cutting and pasting small elements, which worked better than hands during those times. Rubber and cement was the adhesive of choice for designers in the past. It helped make applications more smooth and flat. Lastly, they made use of pens and pencils such that there were regular ones for tracing and light blue pencils to draw images or notes that were invisible on preprint film.

            After, the technological advancement, there has been a change in approach of creating artistic works. For instance, the use of platforms like Fiverr has made it easier to find graphic designers especially for small business and made it easier to break into the industry. In addition, technology advancements have changed in the approach of creating artistic works through the introduction of animations and virtual reality (Vienne, p.55). In addition, the print media is on its way, and with such advances, the digital media is slowly becoming the future of graphic design. Moreover, there are ways in which technology are linked and ways in which they are autonomous from each other. For instance, paint jobs can make sensors and autonomous cars safer through high tech pigments that enable dark vehicles to be seen much better. 

The creative industry has become a vital contributor to sustainable development. The artistic focus transforms to align with the economic development of a society; the arts do not just respond to economic changes, but they are vital catalysts for the shifts. It follows that developed economies have vibrant artistic communities (Montague, Powell, and Swindells 129). The pursuit of graphic design as a profession implies there is monetary compensation involved. Even the most passionate artists have to temper their free spirits to meet their daily needs. The technological changes have created ripples across the economic world and caused graphic designers to adjust their strategies accordingly. Graphic design is heavily reliant on photography, and money is necessary to buy professional equipment. The arts and the economy can thrive autonomously, but synchronized progress in both fields leads to sustainable development.

The modern iteration of graphic design incorporates the resources the Internet offers and its corresponding exposure. Graphic designers’ relationships with the Internet, and more recently social media, exemplify the dynamics between art and economy (Montague et al. 134). Businesses strive to manage the perception of value that their respective products offer. This new economic reality has thrust graphic designers into the heart of organizations’ marketing strategies. In the digital age, consumers are inundated with information. The graphic designers assist with marketing strategies to help these organizations’ messages to stand out. Such endeavors require artists to balance aesthetics with purpose.

             Graphic designers have utilized their skills in visual communication to dominate the YouTube platform. The avenue enables graphic designers to elevate their craft and, at the same time, embrace other art forms such as storytelling to deliver value to their audiences (Manzini 62). While their authenticity is not in question, they are there partly for the money. Their love for the art form helps them create original content that will attract and sustain an audience. However, the economic incentives keep them motivated by showing them that their work is valued. Creativity requires a clear head; a decent income prevents the creator from distraction by financial instability. An economic situation that rewards its artists inspires them to be creative. Anticipating recognition is a part of human nature.

The age of Van Gogh and like-minded artists that lived deprived lives only for their works to be celebrated posthumously is gone. Art was a status symbol that often did not translate to prosperity for the artist with few exceptions (Manzini 58). Modern artists have a stake in the auction of their pieces. Investors buy works of famous paintings because their value appreciates and is more stable than stock. What elevates graphic design from traditional art is that it strives to communicate a message. The viewers are not responsible for interpreting their unique realities from a given piece. Instead, they gain a better understanding of a preconceived message. In this regard, appropriation is condoned as long as the result is achieved. Graphic designers have deliverables that they must fulfill to receive compensation. Nonetheless, the graphic designers remain autonomous; they can choose the strategy to employ to communicate a set deliverable.

Sometimes, art defies the economic trends to demonstrate its independence. The Renaissance coincided with the French revolution when poverty was widespread. The flexibility of the arts allows it to display a different dimension depending on the occasion. During financial turmoil, artists with platforms that range from graphic designers to filmmakers utilize their voice to express their frustrations. Art in its basic form is a medium of expression.

Work Cited

Celhay, Franck, and Jean François Trinquecoste. “Package Graphic Design: Investigating the Variables that Moderate Consumer Response to Atypical Designs.” Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 32, no. 6, 2015, pp. 1014-1032.

Dabner, David et al. Graphic Design School: The Principles and Practices of Graphic Design. Wiley, 2017.

Fénéon, Félix, and Belinda Thomson. “The Impressionists in 1886”. Art in Translation, vol 6, no. 3, 2014, pp. 271-285. Informa UK Limited, doi:10.2752/175613114×14043084852958. Accessed 14 July 2018.

Lupton, Ellen, and J. Abbott Miller. “Deconstruction and Graphic Design: History Meets Theory.” Visible Language, vol. 28, no. 4, 1994, pp. 345-365.

Manzini, Ezio. Design, when everybody Designs: An Introduction to Design for Social Innovation. MIT Press, 2015.

Montague, L. M., A. Powell, and S. Swindells. “Cultural Economics: Relating Urban Design, Art and Civic Society as a Platform for Creative Consultation.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Changing Cities II: Spatial, Design, Landscape & Socioeconomic dimensions. Grafima Publications, 2015.

Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina et al. “Colours And Pigments In Late Ukiyo-E Art Works: A Preliminary Non-Invasive Study Of Japanese Woodblock Prints To Interpret Hyperspectral Images Using In-Situ Point-By-Point Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy”. Microchemical Journal, vol 139, 2018, pp. 94-109. Elsevier BV, doi:10.1016/j.microc.2018.02.015. Accessed 14 July 2018.

Global Manifestations of Religious Fundamentalism in the 1980s

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name



Global Manifestations of Religious Fundamentalism in the 1980s

            Religious fundamentalism emerged as a reaction to the liberalism and modernism of faith in the late 20th century. Fundamentalists resisted the modern approach towards interpreting part of the doctrines. Instead, they proposed a primary analysis of the Bible. In the 1980s, societies across the globe had already embraced fundamentalism as a belief in the literal interpretation. In the Middle East, a revolution culminated in the replacement of secular law with religious doctrines (Berger 64). This adaptation of the law infused elements of radicalization that manifested themselves in the form of fatal attacks by extremists across Asia, Northern Africa and parts of the Middle East. Religious fundamentalists also ensured that they integrated various elements of Islamic law into the state. The incorporation of such practices is already evident in countries such as Morocco. Christian evangelicalism, which is one of the leading denominations that has embraced fundamentalism, has managed to spread across South America and the United States. Orthodox Jewish fundamentalists facilitated the sweeping instability across the Middle East by creating settlements in the Palestinian region. A significant characteristic of the fundamentalist dogma is intolerance for other religions (Berger 67). This intolerance is responsible for the conflict between Hindus and Christians in India. Their influence has since grown to demand an increased voice in matters of public office. The wave of religious fundamentalism took secular states by surprise and overturned the existing principles that governed people (Saroglou 39). The religion-linked turmoil has served to dismiss the current political and social order that existed within most countries and regions. For instance, while Christians are fighting in Ireland, the Jews in West Bank are struggling with expansionism, and the Buddhists in Sri Lanka have embraced a militia approach. In this respect, it is evident that religious fundamentalism has managed to traverse globally since the 1980s.

Works Cited

Berger, Peter L. “The Desecularization of the World: A Global Overview.” The New Sociology of Knowledge: The Life and Work of Peter L. Berger, edited by Michaela Pfadenhauer, Routledge, 2017, pp. 61-76.

Saroglou, Vassilis. “Intergroup Conflict, Religious Fundamentalism, and Culture.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 47, no. 1, 2016, pp. 33-41.

Enhancing Pediatric Care Using Informatics

Enhancing Pediatric Care Using Informatics

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Enhancing Pediatric Care Using Informatics

The maintenance of pediatric care is an imperative subject due to the vulnerabilities that affect its core population. Children require health care demands that are unique from those needed by adults. In fact, the traits of this populace, as well as the framework that offers the respective services to them, warrant exclusive consideration as far as the development and provision of treatment and management solutions is concerned. The rationale for selecting the topic was based on the extent to which pediatric care is affected by the same issues that generally affect universal health services. The observation of inherent dimensions such as quality, coordination, and efficiency tends to be standardized despite the susceptible nature of children to problems such as hospital-acquired infections and medication errors. In this respect, the application of informatics acts as a plausible solution for enhancing the mentioned elements. By implementing the technological innovations that currently comprise normal healthcare facilities, it is possible to improve the services provided to the group in question and attain optimal patient outcomes in the long-term. Nonetheless, attention should also be inclined towards the negative implications that may affect the delivery of effective pediatric care, particularly due to concerns centered on resistance to organizational change.

The rationale for choosing the subject revolves around the risks that expose young patients to effects derived from low-quality health practices. Children usually depend on their guardians, relatives, and attendants for proper medical care (Goodman, 2009). However, aspects such as the context of care, the identification of suitable treatment processes, and verifying when to seek the services in question affect challenges that encompass the deployment of the objective. Such difficulties necessitate the implementation of applicable strategies that can ensure quality delivery of pediatric care and the overall fulfillment of the population’s needs. The discourse advocates for the application of informatics across the associated healthcare facilities. The position is attributed to evidence that shows the correlation between patient outcomes and the incorporation of information technology (IT) solutions. Further, advances in the healthcare sector can potentially support effective pediatric care by reducing consequences, which usually recur in standard healthcare settings (Snyder et al., 2011). The implementation of these systems may prove instrumental in enhancing the services that are offered to children by reducing their vulnerabilities towards issues such as hospital-acquired infections and medication errors, which tend to persist in standardized care environments.

Propositioning for the incorporation of technological tactics is established by their capacity to enhance a wide array of fields that pertain to pediatric care. According to Webber (2016), technological tactics can be implemented to imperative fields such as delivered care and the context. The comprehensiveness of these applications establishes the positive implications that they may impose in nursing practice. One area that acknowledges this argument involves the determination of the proper context for treatment and management. As stated, one of the challenges that caregivers encounter when faced with health predicaments that affect their children involves the identification of the best possible environment. The uncertainty that parents and guardians experience in such circumstances regularly force them to admit the affected individual for the sake of averting any crisis in the event that the child possesses an undetected ailment. Using evidence-based directives that guide ambulatory care, the patient can receive the proper medical attention by incorporating conventional treatment practices with tests, such as computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans. The solutions may prove effective in assessing the actual issues affecting the patient, hence, reducing uncertainty among caregivers as well as errors resulting from incorrect diagnoses.

Another positive effect associated with the use of informatics solutions in pediatric care is the reduction of variation in clinical care and the enhancement of quality. While deviations may be present within standardized care, evidence shows that considerable abnormalities tend to be present among children. Such aberrations frequently result from the disparities that underlie aspects utilized in the categorization of patients. Furthermore, the extensive nature of these incongruities restricts pediatric care facilities from attaining the proper levels of quality as far as the provision of services such as immunization is concerned (Goodman, 2009). Despite these constraints, the deployment of technological strategies can affect the practice positively by expanding knowledge on the significance of informatics in standardization. For instance, patient registries via shared networks can assist in the amassment of data for infants, children, and adolescents, and for endeavors aimed at improving the quality of the services offered. For patients with preferential treatments, these frameworks can provide data and incorporate the participation of guardians and family members to inform decisions that maximize therapy for patients (Goodman, 2009). As a result, the organization will be able to provide improved care to its patients regardless of the implications derived from variations.

Even though the deployment of informatics solutions has its benefits, it is also imperative to consider the negative aspects that may result from these actions. Improving the quality of pediatric care involves altering the current organizational context. However, change tends to create challenges that prevent the facility from implementing novel alternatives. These disputes are often attributed to the notion of the corporate culture. Accordingly, the organizational culture signifies the mores of behavior and the joint beliefs present within an organization (Webber, 2016). Typically, these elements influence the attitudes, practices, and actions that employees and other faculty members apply. Inculcating new technologies in an organization disrupts the settings occupied by the stakeholders, thus, resulting in resistance. In fact, the observed status quo encourages employees and staff members to oppose any changes to preserve the familiarity of the environment. In this respect, pediatric care facilities will be restricted from satisfying the patients’ needs, especially if the alterations threaten to modify the entire organization. Such implications necessitate more understanding of the processes that can be used to limit the effects of change on the healthcare organization.

The effects of informatics on pediatric care hold specific implications for nursing practice. Firstly, it will be possible to determine the appropriate care setting that a patient requires due to the benefits gained from implementing technological solutions and observing practice guidelines regarding care services. Secondly, the advocacy for the respective strategies will be rationalized and implemented due to the occurrences of unwarranted variations as far as provided care is concerned. However, the subject in question will necessitate further learning and understanding of the mechanics that inform organizational behavior. As far as recommendations are concerned, the focus will shift towards increased studying of the issues that affect most practices about the application of informatics and the quality of patient care. The attainment of practical experience in organizations that endorse the implementation of these solutions will also be imperative in future for the aim of understanding the degree to which informatics influence decision-making in different areas of care.


Goodman, D. C. (2009). Unwarranted variation in medical care. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 56(4), 745-755.

Snyder, C. F., Wu, A. W., Miller, R. S., Jensen, R. E., Bantug, E. T., & Wolff, A. C. (2011). The role of informatics in promoting patient-centered care. Cancer Journal, 17(4), 211-218.

Webber, E. C. (2016). Population health and pediatric informatics. Pediatrics Clinics of North America, 63(2), 221-237

The Affordable Care Act: Protecting the Rule on Pre-Existing Condition Coverage

The Affordable Care Act: Protecting the Rule on Pre-Existing Condition Coverage

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

The Affordable Care Act: Protecting the Rule on Pre-Existing Condition Coverage

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 has proven instrumental in the distribution of healthcare services to most populaces across the nation. Elements of the law such as Medicaid have ensured the availability of these resources to millions of people who were uninsured before its implementation. Despite this, the Trump administration has advocated for a repeal of the law, arguing that some of its features are unconstitutional and costly. A particular issue involves the coverage that the Act offers to individuals with pre-existing conditions. Insurance firms had often refused to cover people that suffered from ailments such as asthma and chronic illnesses. Resolving the concern necessitates an emphasis on attaining mandatory coverage and imposing legislation that seals the loopholes insurance companies use to evade the directive.

The underlying principle establishing the Affordable Care Act’s provision on pre-existing conditions is that the directive is unconstitutional. The lack of a legal requirement that authorizes the possession of health insurance for most Americans establishes the law’s undemocratic nature (Goodnaugh, Pear, & Savage, 2018). As such, the stipulation, which restricts insurance firms from barring covers for people with pre-existing ailments, is inapplicable and void as far as the argument is concerned. Since the absence of an individual mandate generates the current issue, a probable resolution may involve the application of mandatory coverage. Accordingly, mandatory coverage will ensure that all American citizens attain the most basic insurance covers. The obligatory nature of the prerequisite will also guarantee that most individuals purchase health insurance by using the law as a deterrent for evading.

Aside from mandatory coverage, the implementation of rules that disrupt vulnerabilities in the corresponding provision will fix loopholes used to avoid covering pre-existing illnesses. Irrespective of the directive, insurance firms usually engage in antics such as high pricing for medications needed by patients ailing from conditions such as multiple sclerosis and HIV/AIDS (Amadeo, 2018). The imposition of significant expenses on the acquisition of these drugs influences persons to switch to plans that apply cheaper levies. Insurance firms also deny coverage for specific medications, forcing individuals to access other platforms (Amadeo, 2018). While both solutions may rectify the situation, mandatory coverage is the most feasible alternative since it will reinforce the constitutional position of the ACA and secure it from repeal. The end outcome will involve the protection of the pre-existing conditions provision from nullification.

The federal government will be responsible for effecting the proposition. Through mechanisms such as funding and facilitation, the federal government will finance state and local governments with the resources needed to provide coverage to all citizens such as subsidies (Larrat, Marcoux, & Vogenberg, 2012). Consequently, the branches of the government, especially the legislative, have the task of ensuring that all citizens attain insurance coverage. Through legislation, all citizens will be required to buy health insurance or incur financial penalties if they fail to comply. The executive will ascertain the proposed bill by signing it into law, hence establishing its application across states. The judiciary, through the Supreme Court, will be responsible for determining the constitutionality of the ACA and its provision by assessing whether mandatory coverage qualifies as an individual mandate.

However, the argument for mandatory coverage is objectionable due to ethical concerns, specifically pertaining to autonomy. Even though health is essential for the public, a person bears the right to choose whether to obtain insurance or not. In this respect, mandatory coverage stifles this right by forcing all persons to attain coverage or face the consequences. While the argument resonates from a moral perspective, it fails to note the extent to which the provision will create a larger insurance pool that satisfies the needs of most Americans from a health standpoint. To this end, since the objective involves ensuring ease of access to health care, the proposed solution may facilitate increased wellbeing, reduced levels of mortality, and morbidity at the expense of privileges linked to autonomy.


Amadeo, K. (2018). Obamacare pre-existing conditions: How Obamacare protects those with pre-existing conditions. Retrieved from

Goodnaugh, A., Pear, R., & Savage, C. (2018, June 8). Trump’s new plan to dismantle Obamacare comes with political risks. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Larrat, E. P., Marcoux, R. M., & Vogenberg, F. R. (2012). Impact of federal and state legal trends on health care services. Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 37(4), 218-220.

The Role of Big Data Analytics in Innovation: A Study from the Telecom Industry

The Role of Big Data Analytics in Innovation: A Study from the Telecom Industry

by (Name)




City and State


Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

Critical Review.. 3

Additional References. 6

Literature Gap. 10

Conclusions. 11

References. 13


            Technological advancements have led to use of big data analytics to increase knowledge, innovation, and competitive advantage for modern organizations. Big data analytics within the telecom industry has brought about significant changes in the way that businesses source, collect and analyze information (Watson 2014). With a diverse set of data, these organizations can examine and solve their problems creatively and efficiently. The innovation also allows them to attain cost-effective strategies of business operations, thus helping them save financial resources in the process (LaValle et al. 2012; Chen et al. 2012). Furthermore, the phenomenon has rendered traditional forms of data collection almost obsolete.

            The comprehensive analysis deals with the report, “The Role of Big Data Analytics in Innovation: A Study from the Telecom Industry.” Here, the authors make a careful evaluation of how the telecommunications industry has enhanced its innovative techniques using big data. The objective of this report is to provide an interpretative analysis of the resource and evaluate various research and literature gaps in the field of big data analytics as applied in the telecom industry. The report also covers some of the information sources provided within this article to give a comprehensive assessment of the subject.

Critical Review

The report under review deals with the manner in which the collection of massive sets of data has aided businesses to resolve serious predicaments. It also discusses the way in which organizations analyze and manage data to develop highly innovative strategies that provide a competitive advantage. The purpose of the report was, therefore, to examine how telecom companies collect and process big data to offer these innovative solutions. This qualitative study uses both primary and secondary information from three companies in Jordan. Some of the primary data sources include GPS, mobile usage data, interviews, marketing survey, and reviews and comments provided to the organizations.

The research has the objective of answering the question of how impactful big data analytics has been in telecom companies regarding their added capacities. Additionally, the study investigates how absorptive capacity helps to improve innovation. According to Al-Jaafreh and Fayoumi (2017), contemporary organizations survive and thrive through the adoption of innovative strategies, which they gain from both external and internal knowledge. Previous studies have explored the basic concepts of big data analytics, such as the types of techniques used to gather data. Researchers have also investigated other technical aspects of big data, such as methods of analysis and management. Other commonly explored areas include examining active software systems used to analyze big data, whether qualitative or quantitative. However, the authors note that an existing gap within this field of study is how organizations apply this information to enhance innovation within its working environment. In addition, the report does not explore the business value of big data sufficiently.

In light of this, the authors also note that extensive studies have drawn a connection between information and innovation within the organization. Nonetheless, it remains unclear how these elements interact, as well as the additional resources required to achieve their innovation goals. Al-Jaafreh and Fayoumi (2017) consequently assert, “To create BDA capability, organizations should focus on many resources such as infrastructure and people” (pg. 3). A critical conceptual aspect of the study is an organization’s absorptive capacity. The concept is the ability of a firm to gain, adapt, transform, and implement knowledge to generate a more effective and dynamic function. The firm’s absorptive capacity has a direct association to its ability to apply the knowledge that big data provides once it has been collected and analyzed. Furthermore, the notion relates to the firm’s ability to store and manage large volumes of data. Therefore, the success of enhancing innovation from big data analytics is dependent on not only the big data but also on the availability of other resources as well as the effectiveness of their interactions.

The concept of absorptive capacity has its roots in the resource-based theory. This theory provides a managerial structure that incorporates the organization’s diverse strategic resources as a means of gaining a sustainable advantage in today’s competitive markets. Within the Jordanian telecom companies in the study, the resource-based theory is relevant to study how these businesses can use human resources, technological infrastructure, money, and big data to gain innovation, which is the value that bolsters their market positions.

Al-Jaafreh and Fayoumi (2017) maintain that the overall significance of the study is to provide an in-depth analysis of how big data interacts with other resources in the firm to add value. The information allows managers to enhance their practice based on the findings. The interface also provides them with more control over how large volumes of data are handled, understanding their worth in the innovative processes. One limitation of the data is that it is limited to telecom companies in one country. While the study is performed using a small population, the concepts of absorptive capacity can be applied across all professional fields.

A vital aspect of the study is that it possesses a strong background in big data analytics. Many of the resources used are recent, peer-reviewed, and relevant to the research. The sources are from experts, and this has enhanced their reliability as far as research on the concept is concerned. Due to the proficiency exhibited by the authors, the journal articles also manage to integrate other distinct areas with the notion of big data analytics. These information sources provide a robust context that the reader can use to draw the connection between innovation and data analytics. However, since the specific gap of study has not been sufficiently investigated in the past, information on the subject is limited.

Additional References

Reference Summary Relevance
Akter, S, Wamba, SF, Gunasekaran, A, Dubey, R & Childe, SJ 2016, ‘How to improve firm performance using big data analytics capability and business strategy alignment,’ International Journal of Production Economics, vol. 182, pp.113-131.   The article focuses on the growing interest in big data analytics. As companies continue to embrace big data analytics and developing such capabilities, it becomes essential to evaluate how it affects performance. The main problem presented is that the technique cannot be applied for all organizations despite its successes in several sett workings. The resource-based theory has been used to develop a Big Data Analytics Capability (BDAC) model that provides critical insight into its implementation. From the study carried out, the findings reveal that the BDAC model is composed of three categories including management, technology, and talent capability. Within those criteria, aspects that include preparation, management, consistency, technology administration familiarity, harmonization, investment, relational awareness, and business comprehension were critical to the accomplishment of the model. The study also revealed the intricate and multidimensional aspect of big data analytics, especially when interacted with other organizational resources. The article is relevant to the study because it provides a strong background regarding the concept of absorptive capacity that a firm needs to have to apply big data for innovation. The articles examine the relationship between big data analytics and organizational performance. Therefore, it provides a foundation for the study of big data and its benefits through innovative strategies. A resource-based approach is used to create the BDAC model, which allows us to examine how resources interact with big data to improve performance. The study can provide more evidence that supports the authors’ position that big data can only work when associated with other resources.
Côrte-Real, N, Oliveira, T & Ruivo, P 2017, ‘Assessing business value of big data analytics in European firms,’ Journal of Business Research, vol. 70, pp. 379-390.   European firms have developed strategic technological skills and capabilities to gain a competitive advantage in today’s markets. According to the authors, dynamic capabilities are essential for strengthening the position of a company. In light of this assertion, there has been increasing demand for big data analytics as it has provided firms with competitive business value. From the study of 500 European firms, the authors’ findings were that big data analytics could enhance the overall agility of an organization. The supplement is achieved through the management of knowledge, infrastructure, and other resources. Furthermore, Corte- Real and colleagues (2017) reveal that agility may “partially mediate the effect between knowledge assets and performance” (pg. 5). As such, the article provides an excellent background that explains the relationship between the business value from big data analytics and competitive advantage. The article has been beneficial to the study because it provides a theoretical background concerning the value of big data to large organizations. The study also covers resource management through an analysis of dynamic capabilities. An essential value that big data analytics provides to these firms is the enhancement of adaptive abilities. Adaptation is a valuable asset that growing firms need to possess to thrive in a competitive industry.
Kambatla, K, Kollias, G, Kumar, V & Grama, A 2014, ‘Trends in big data analytics. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing,’ vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 2561-2573.   The resource provides an assessment of big data analytics. According to Kambatla and colleagues (2014), an increasing interest in big data analytics has been attributed to the wide range of potential benefits it provides to achieve organizational success. The authors focus on the present and future trends of big data, examining how applicable it has been towards organizational development. The article also discusses both hardware and software resources and methods that can be used to analyze and implement big data. Hardware and software tools contribute to the resources needed to achieve a desirable level of absorptive capacity. Therefore, the article provides relevant background to the study because it allows us to examine how these tools, in particular, can be utilized and interacted with big data as well as other required resources. Hardware tools in big data provide the infrastructure used to collect and store large volumes of data. Software tools facilitate management and analysis.

Literature Gap

The study focused on how big data analytics has benefited organizations within the telecoms industry. One significant gap is that it has focused on only three organizations in Jordan. This small sample size presents limitations in its capacity to be representative of all telecom industries on a global scale. Furthermore, Jordan is a country whose people have different cultural values and practices from populations living in Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, Asia, and America. The discrepancy will affect how data may be collected and utilized for the organization’s competitive advantage. For instance, different organizations develop disparate perceptions regarding the concept of organizational value. The diversity in perspective will also affect the type of data collected as well as techniques used to achieve innovative strategies. Therefore, future studies may focus on gaining more data for telecom companies outside the country, and across other parts of the world.

The study was aimed at improving management practices using big data analytics and innovation. However, the resource did not provide a sufficient background into how organizational culture affects management, and how big data is utilized. According to Thirathon and colleagues (2017), decision making on a managerial level is influenced by cultural factors such as their analytic cultures and practice. Their views will ultimately shape this practice based on their target market and the broader societies in which they operate. Similarly, Chhokar and colleagues (2013) focus on different management styles across several cultures in the world. The difference in management will determine how leaders perceive tools and resources that benefit their organizations. Therefore, implementation of big data will be highly dependent on this factor. The research question that can be used as a foundation for future studies is: “How does organizational culture affect the manner in which big data analytics is carried out?”

Another literature gap is the examination of the relationship between big data analytics and innovativeness across all industries. The resource focused on the use of big data in telecom companies alone. As such, additional considerations for other organizations may be overlooked. For instance, the perspective of innovation and business value within a telecom company will differ significantly from that of a retail, food, or fashion company. If big data analytics is used to evaluate customer needs and preferences, the study of one industry alone will not provide sufficient frameworks of the market behavior, which can be used to predict future outcomes. Future studies may focus on collecting data across different sectors and develop common patterns of how big data analytics influences innovation.


Technological advancements in today’s organizations have been characterized by the collection, analysis, and utilization of large volumes of information referred to as big data. Through this, organizations have been able to generate more revenue, reduce operational costs, and achieve competitive advantages. The article focused on how big data analytics has been used to enhance innovative strategies within telecom companies. Three companies in Jordan were selected for this study. Results showed that telecom companies have been able to benefit from their absorptive capacity, which involves connecting big data with other resources to generate beneficial information. The additional sources of information provide sufficient background regarding the study of big data analytics, which provides a foundation for the study itself. Gaps in the literature include the study of a small sample of organizations (only three companies) which is not representative on a global scale. Another shortcoming is that cultural factors were not considered because the managerial culture in Jordan differs from the practices exercised in other regions. Lastly, the study is affected by the localized nature of its research on big data analytics and innovation. The research only focused on the telecom industry and drew conclusions that only apply to the respective sector. However, the implementation of these findings may be incapacitated due to the diverse nature of industries. Future studies should focus on broadening the scope of research to include more industries.


Akter, S, Wamba, SF, Gunasekaran, A, Dubey, R & Childe, SJ 2016, ‘How to improve firm performance using big data analytics capability and business strategy alignment,’ International Journal of Production Economics, vol. 182, pp.113-131.

Al-Jaafreh, A & Fayoumi, A 2017, ‘The role of big data analytics in innovation: A study from the telecom industry,’ ACIS.

Chen, H, Chiang, RH & Storey, VC 2012, ‘Business intelligence and analytics: From big data to big impact,’ MIS Quarterly, pp.1165-1188.

Chhokar, JS, Brodbeck, FC & House, RJ (eds) 2013, Culture and leadership across the world: The GLOBE book of in-depth studies of 25 societies, Routledge.

Côrte-Real, N, Oliveira, T & Ruivo, P 2017, ‘Assessing business value of big data analytics in European firms,’ Journal of Business Research, vol. 70, pp. 379-390.

Kambatla, K, Kollias, G, Kumar, V & Grama, A 2014, ‘Trends in big data analytics. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing,’ vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 2561-2573.

Kwon, O, Lee, N & Shin, B 2014, ‘Data quality management, data usage experience and acquisition intention of big data analytics,’ International Journal of Information Management, vol. 34, no. 3, pp.387-394.

LaValle, S, Lesser, E, Shockley, R, Hopkins, MS & Kruschwitz, N, 2011, ‘Big data, analytics and the path from insights to value,’ MIT Sloan Management Review, vol. 52, no. 2, p.21.

Thirathon, U, Wieder, B, Matolcsy, Z & Ossimitz, ML 2017, ‘Big data, analytic culture and analytic-based decision-making evidence from Australia,’ Procedia Computer Science, vol. 121, pp.775-783.

Watson, HJ, 2014, ‘Tutorial: Big data analytics: Concepts, technologies, and applications,’ CAIS, vol. 34, p. 65.

Individual Responses

Individual Responses

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Individual Responses

Response to Moody

Dear Moody, this is an awesome post about the diffusion of innovation, and how it is being used by TRMC to provide its clients with a positive customer experience. The provision of an affordable means of transport for the citizens of Orangeburg and the entire city can be interpreted as TRMC’s strategy to endear itself to its customers. Allowing the public access to the hospital cafeteria offers potential customers the opportunity to sample services provided by the healthcare facility. I believe the hospital can gain further by highlighting the nature of medical services and products it offers to its clients at the cafeteria (Spath & Kelly, 2017). This strategy can be achieved by introducing different themes at the cafeteria that are designed to portray the nature of healthcare services and products provided at the facility. The diffusion of innovation is premised on the need to create bias in consumer behavior; therefore, the construed bias should not be perceived as a negative aspect, but as a positive attribute accrued from the hospital’s marketing efforts.

Response to Dr. Griffin

            Hello, Dr. Griffin. Your post regarding the effectiveness of selling experiences rather than products is exceptionally insightful. However, your position that confers similar experiences in a healthcare facility is incorrect. Customer satisfaction can be achieved in any setting and healthcare facilities are not exempt from this position. The ability to obtain desired and positive health outcomes for patients increases satisfaction rates, which can be associated with optimal experiences.

Response to Class 3

            The Class 3 post about organizational culture highlights the concept excellently by demonstrating the importance of leadership. Corporate culture is dependent on effective leadership strategies and individuals well equipped with the relevant competencies and experience to implement them to the achievement of set organizational goals (Spath & Kelly, 2017). The creation of an organizational culture that complements its vision, missions, and corporate strategies requires useful leadership skills that allow these individuals to inspire, motivate, and educate employees. A motivated workforce coupled with the availability of adequate resources to achieve a firm’s objectives works to ensure improved performance and productivity.


Spath, P. L., & Kelly, D. L. (2017). Applying quality management in healthcare (4th ed.).

Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press.