Support@brillianttermpapers.org

1-206-973-7012

CMNS A3

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

CMNS A3: Social Media and Privacy

            Social media usage has become a popular mode of communication and leisure within the last decade. It has become almost impossible to operate without subscribing to Facebook, Twitter, and other preferred sites. The sheer amount of personal and confidential information shared across social media sites makes it necessary to perform an in-depth analysis of the related risks, and particularly the loss of privacy. Currently, approximately 1 billion people all over the world have at least two social media accounts. The users represent a significant number of people that are vulnerable to the improper usage of these communication tools. While the subscription part is mostly voluntary, a worrying number of social media sites are highly intrusive to the extent that they are mandatory for users requiring access to other websites. The problem of lack of privacy in the usage of social media sites has the potential to create additional issues that include identity theft.

            The way in which most social media sites have been designed complicates the process of securing personal data. Social media has been inspired by the need to simplify the process of creating a community of people who have commonalities (Scoble, Israel, & Benioff, 2014). Therefore, most of the functions within a basic site will be geared towards uniting common factors among different people. Recent innovations in the data mining discipline have made it harder for a subscriber to maintain their privacy. Several factors fuel this erosion of privacy measures across online sites. For instance, the commercialization of personal data has created a new business niche that has since been filled by internet service providers who have access to user data (Trepte & Reinecke, 2011). Many companies demand this type of data as it simplifies the development of a robust customer database. The other primary factor driving the rampant violation of privacy rights is the need to develop effective social media sites (Scoble et al., 2014). Companies behind these sites rely heavily on massive amounts of subscriber data to create customized and relevant content for different demographics.

When opening a new social media account, users are required to provide an extensive amount of personal information such as birthdays, full names, and occupations. While this data is valuable as it allows friends, colleagues, and acquaintances to find each other across the networks, it also exposes the users to malicious internet users. A recent example of such an occurrence was in 2013 when Facebook users were attacked by a bug that collected their information discretely (Weinberg, Milne, Andonova, & Hajjat, 2015). After the incident, many users reported that their private information was leaked to another company without their consent. The episode is a classic case of a violation of privacy rights.

The issue with privacy in social media is that people are used to having their own restrictions. Therefore, when they access the Internet, they are unaware of the different ways in which they willingly or unintentionally share their data with other users. However, merely signing up for a particular chatting service implies relinquishing several levels of privacy (Taddicken & Jers, 2011). The loss of confidentiality also acts as a gateway to other illegal and equally damaging behavior on the Internet. Stalking and harassment occur among both friends and total strangers. In some cases, these violations lead to individuals divulging sensitive information, which affects the self-esteem and social standing of the affected people (Weinberg, et al., 2015). Users of social media sites should be aware of the severe risks associated with losing privacy. Providing personal information may appear harmless at first, but it has the potential to escalate into defamation, stalking, identity theft, and other technological ills.

References

Scoble, R., Israel, S., & Benioff, M. R. (2014). Age of context: Mobile, sensors, data and the future of privacy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Patrick Brewster Press.

Taddicken, M., & Jers, C. (2011). The uses of privacy online: Trading a loss of privacy for social web gratifications? In S. Trepte & L. Reinecke (Eds.), Privacy online (pp. 143-156). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Trepte, S., & Reinecke, L. (Eds.). (2011). Privacy online: Perspectives on privacy and self-disclosure in the social web. Springer Science & Business Media.

Weinberg, B. D., Milne, G. R., Andonova, Y. G., & Hajjat, F. M. (2015). Internet of things: Convenience vs. privacy and secrecy. Business Horizons58(6), 615-624.

Taffel Readings Summary

Taffel Readings Summary

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Taffel Readings Summary

Introduction

            Parenting in the modern world presents new challenges for parents. The changing world also offers new opportunities and obstacles for parents trying to raise their sons and daughters to become responsible, ethical, socially conscious, and free to pursue their happiness and desires. Technological advancements in the post-1990s have also introduced new and vital dynamics in child rearing, given that young people spend a significant amount of their time online. It is therefore clear that parents need to apply new strategies of guidance for this new environment to raise successful children. Taffel focuses on the need to become physically and emotionally engaged with children to assist them to navigate the challenges that they face today.

The Post Boomer Era

The post-boomer era describes a period after the 1960s, which is characterized by significantly shifting ideologies concerning how children are raised. In this period, the relationships between parents and their children have changed considerably. The variations are attributed to the fact that children have become more expressive, honest, and open with their parents as compared to previous generations (Taffel, 2009). Furthermore, the social landscape has shifted significantly, which makes it more difficult for children today to be raised with the same traditional ideals as those in the boomer period.

Another defining characteristic of the post-boomer era is the fact that parents are much more involved in the lives of their children than in the previous generations. Parents can understand the social and educational pressures that children face in the 21st century because they faced similar experiences in their youth. Furthermore, family and social life have placed much more emphasis on the need for closeness rather than the “intergenerational warfare” that threatens healthy relationships between parents and their children (Taffel, 2009). Technological advancements have also defined the post-boomer era. New forms of automation have presented opportunities for movement and engagement across the two generations.

The ease of communication has also increased demands for social commitments and multitasking for the post-boomer parents and their children alike. At the same time, technology has also brought about challenges of personal connections in the 21st century. Young people are more immersed in the digital world at the expense of living in the present. The phenomenon is likely to put a strain on the relationships of young people and their post-boomer parents.

Raising Kids in the ‘Free-est’ Generation

According to Taffel (2009), the ‘free-est’ generation can be described as the children who experience little to no limitations in almost all aspects of life today. These children experience life in a significantly different way from that of their parents and the generations that existed before. Much of this phenomenon can be attributed to the fact that we live in the age of information. The digital platforms such as search engines and social media have made it significantly easier and economical for children to access and share information. Despite this, children still require close guidance to process all the information to which they are exposed. Post-boomer parents, therefore, need to provide this form of guidance, while at the same time ensuring they do not limit their children’s freedom of information access.

            The ‘free-est’ children are also not bound to the expectations of past generations. According to Taffel (2009), 21st-century young children are faced with a wide array of opportunities regarding individual pursuits. In comparison, young generations before the boomer era were often tied to the economic backgrounds of their parents and grandparents. Today, there is much less expectation for children to assume the economic and social roles of their parents. In light of this freedom, active parents will raise their children to explore these opportunities. They are required to encourage and support their children to follow their dreams, no matter how much they deviate from that of their own. The strategy is achieved by exposing the young ones to the wide variety of possibilities, desires, and opportunities for economic, social, and psychological fulfillment.

            Post-boomer parents face new experiences of raising children in the age of diversity. With the new generation, parents are stunned by their children’s capacity to transcend the differences that the previous generations faced, but were unable to because of their conservative and homogenous backgrounds. Children today cannot only acknowledge physical, religious, and cultural differences but also look beyond it to appreciate the individual for his or her personhood. While this phenomenon poses an excellent potential for unity and social advancement, it also presents challenges for post-boomer parents who grew up in a different environment. Parents of the ‘free-est’ generation, therefore, need to encourage their children to connect with people from different backgrounds as a way of raising socially conscious, fair, and responsible adults of the future.

            With the freedom and access to information that 21st-century children have today, the risk of teen anxiety becomes more prevalent. According to Taffel, “freedom brings anxiety, and trouble is its companion, driving both kids and parents a little crazy” (2009, p. 14). The multitude of choices is likely to cause anxiety in children, who are now under pressure to make the best decisions for their lives with this generational privilege. Lack of support from parents may lead to paths of self-destruction, characterized by drug abuse, self-harm, and various forms of mental illness. Therefore, the author maintains that parents need to engage their children on a deeper level.

Post-boomer parents have been tasked with the responsibility of connecting with their children on an emotional level, helping them to navigate these social challenges (Taffel, 2009). In the same quality as that of previous generations, family ties have maintained their importance, serving as anchors for young children who face an ever-changing world around them. The author emphasizes the need for emotional expression in a way that matches the world of today. The post-boomer parents need to provide love in a way that helps children to develop a sense of belonging, wholeness, power, and self-esteem. These are some of the most powerful tools required to overcome the challenges of today.

Conclusion

            Significant differences characterize the world of today compared to that which post-boomer parents lived. The change presents new challenges and opportunities for parents who seek to raise wholesome, responsible, and socially aware children. A central argument provided by the author to raise successful children is the need to develop engagement across all aspects of life. Engagement centers on the actions of being involved in the life of the child, helping them to navigate the increasingly challenging, ever-changing, and diverse world. A sense of balance is needed for children to control the countless opportunities and freedoms they face today. The equilibrium can be achieved through emphasizing expression, encouraging the pursuit of opportunities, and providing a family environment that is anchored in acceptable values.

Reference

Taffel, R. (2009). Childhood unbound: Saving our kids’ best selves–confident parenting in a world of change. New York, NY: Free Press.

Effectiveness of Consent Degrees

Effectiveness of Consent Degrees

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Briefly, discuss the effectiveness of consent degrees and Section 14141 of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. In doing so, describe the legal provision which allowed the Department of Justice DOJ to intervene in instances where allegations are made that constitutional policing is not followed as a matter of patterns and practices.

Effectiveness of Consent Decrees

Congress passed Title 42 of the United States Code with a view of combating police misconduct. The regulation aimed at instituting proactive reforms to the law enforcement sector. The statute provided the Department of Justice authority to establish litigation on structural changes in police departments. In enforcing the law, the department has intervened using numerous agreements. The Justice Department has the mandate of implementing regulations and administering impartial rulings. In this respect, the department is responsible for ensuring that all government agencies dispense justice fairly. With consent decrees, the DOJ acts as a mediator between the public’s interests and the law enforcement agencies (Alpert, McLean & Wolfe, 2017). The police are empowered by the law to deal with crime and disorder. The consent decree has proved to be effective in ensuring law enforcement agencies to execute their mandate judiciously.

            Various courts and the Department of Justice use consent decrees to reform institutions that violate the civil rights of citizens by police misconducts. The effectiveness of the federal intervention has been the subject of recent debates. The University of Texas studied the correlation between the respective legislations and the occurrences of police transgression in the country (Powell et al., 2017). The findings indicated that consent decrees had reduced the number of civil rights suits against police departments. Statistically, the litigations have decreased by 36% (Powell et al., 2017). The outcomes illustrate that consent decrees have been useful in keeping the conduct of law enforcement officers in check.

Nonetheless, all government agencies should utilize power in a manner that respects the civil rights of individuals and communities. Consent decrees also help the judicial system to eliminate frequent cases of police abuse. The result is that courts have more time to deal with other litigations in the implementation of justice. These provisions are also improving collaboration between the police and the community. Proper reforms in the police departments are only achievable with the partnership of the society because the people understand the challenges better.

References

Alpert, G. P., McLean, K., & Wolfe, S. (2017). Consent decrees: An approach to police accountability and reform. Police Quarterly, 20(3), 239-249.

Powell, Z. A., Meitl, M. B., & Worrall, J. L. (2017). Police consent decrees and Section 1983 civil rights litigation. Criminology & Public Policy, 16(2), 575-605.

Heart Failure Clinic Care Plan

Heart Failure Clinic Care Plan

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Heart Failure Clinic Care Plan

The transfer of heart failure patients from the hospital to home care is one of the most challenging aspects of the healthcare sector. The reason is attributed to the increased effects it poses on the readmission of patients. Reducing such adverse effects necessitates the involvement of the clients and their families in a discharge education framework due to its positive impact on the transitional process. The objective of this plan is to engage heart failure patients and family members during the shift from hospitalized settings to home care and decrease undesirable outcomes as well as readmission. The strategy is applicable in coordination with other programs such as the Care Transition Program that the organization provides to assist the patients to recover smoothly. Educating heart failure patients before discharge enhances self-care and family care. The activity reduces the number of readmissions significantly and enables patients to identify challenges earlier.

The discharge education plan considers the resources and tools for patients to monitor their progress before and after discharge. Aside from the family, staffing resources that will be necessary for the program include the nurses and physicians (Paul, 2008). The purpose of involving faculty members is to ensure that they identify patient’s needs and that the strategy is adaptable to the client’s conditions. The engagement will also educate the patient on the most appropriate training schedule and system. Financial resources are essential components in the discharge education plan and include the costs of printing checklists for the client and their family, and the attending clinician (Khankeh, Rahgozar, & Ranjbar, 2011). The plan will also take into account tools that include critical pathway methods and in-patient instructional measures. Furthermore, a patient management tool will be fundamental in tracking the treatment’s progress and facilitating evidence-based practice. In other circumstances, telephone monitoring may be used to reinforce the patient’s instructional development and assess their health status. The tool in question may also be implemented for patients that reside far from the institution. Alternatively, a formal evaluation tool such as a pretest-posttest measure may be used to evaluate the learning and teaching outcomes.

One of the ways to assess the understandability of the patients and family members is to administer a return demonstration. A return demonstration is carried out to evaluate a patient’s capability to execute and actualize tasks. In this case, the subjects may be asked to verbalize and explain assigned expressions. The nurse may also ask targeted questions about the lesson to identify areas of reinforcement (Carroll & Dowling, 2007). Patients often respond to queries based on their attitudes and opinions. As such, they may fill a questionnaire that requires them to report on their views and intensity of contentment with the teaching program. Physicians may also administer physical observations to assess any behavioral or physiological changes.

Modalities that will be employed to deliver information include one-on-one education, group teaching, computer-aided instruction, and electronic learning. Individual education and group modes will be imposed within the institutional premises while computer-aided instruction and electronic learning will be used for remote teaching. The education program will also need to adapt to the needs of patients from diverse cultural and language backgrounds. Acclimatization will ensure that practitioners are aware of personal biases, equipped with sufficient knowledge regarding the clients’ core values, and an understanding of when to use a translator (Kaslow et al., 2007). Notably, cultural disparities are likely to impose a challenge for the learning process of different heart failure patients. The plan will maintain a sense of flexibility that allows clients to preserve their divergences while remaining within institutional and health constraints.

Nurses and care practitioners are required to possess a sense of accountability and responsibility to the patient. The former is a certified standard that supports direct and safe clinically proficient practice. Nurses possess a professional and legal obligation to provide patients with sufficient information that includes education on the management of patients with chronic illnesses (Baker et al., 2010). The concept of responsibility is noticeable in the nursing philosophy and values of care that envision an individualized, supportive, and patient-centered practice. Carrying out discharge education enhances the duty of care ensuring that patients and practitioners can offer an account of their actions.

The heart failure guidelines and specific professional standards conform to several legal norms that meet the needs of populations with varied circumstances. Guidelines for the quality of care for such patients can be improved through regulatory standards. Practitioners are allowed to tailor the education program based on the patient’s clinical needs. The success of the education plan may be evaluated using a communication tool. Effective communication is a probable criterion for assessing the understanding of the heart failure patient as well as the family. A reconciled medication list can be used to evaluate a client’s knowledge of their medicine. The approach includes learning the medication’s significance to recovery, potential side effects, and the dosage plan. The ability of patients to follow through with the program and actualize all steps would signify the plan’s objectives by the reduction of readmitted heart failure patients.

References

Baker, R., Camosso-Stefinovic, J., Gillies, C., Shaw, E. J., Cheater, F., Flottorp, S., & Robertson, N. (2010). Tailored interventions to overcome identified barriers to change: Effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3), CD005470.

Carroll, Á., & Dowling, M. (2007). Discharge planning: Communication, education, and patient participation. British Journal of Nursing16(14), 882-886.

Kaslow, N. J., Rubin, N. J., Forrest, L., Elman, N. S., Van Horne, B. A., Jacobs, S. C., & Grus, C. L. (2007). Recognizing, assessing, and intervening with problems of professional competence. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice38(5), 479.

Khankeh, H., Rahgozar, M., & Ranjbar, M. (2011). The effects of nursing discharge plan (post-discharge education and follow-up) on self-care ability in patients with chronic schizophrenia hospitalized in Razi psychiatric Center. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research16(2), 162.

Paul, S. (2008). Hospital discharge education for patients with heart failure: What really works and what is the evidence? Critical Care Nurse28(2), 66-82.

Communication Principles

Communication Principles

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Communication Principles

Communication is unavoidable, and individuals tend to select the messages that appeal to them. Bob is concerned about Fatima’s feelings, and he chooses to spend more time on this to find out the cause of the issue. People in the workplace have to interact with each other. Bob is observant, and he notices that there is something wrong with Fatima. Even though Fatima does not want to talk to him, she realizes that she does not have any other option since Bob continues to persist and they end up communicating. Despite insisting that she wants to be left alone, it becomes clear that Fatima intends to speak to someone about her experiences and she opens up to Bob about her problem. Fatima fails to realize that she can use her colleagues to endure past negative experiences. The lone wolf syndrome, which Fatima exhibits by continually rejecting Bob’s adamancy, is a negative feature in the workplace. Colleagues support each other when they work in teams, and enhance their welfare during such situations (Smith, 2012). At the end of the conversation, the protagonists experience happiness further indicating that Fatima has recuperated. The issue’s resolution is essential since it will ensure that she works well.

Communication is irreversible because the utterances that a person makes are irreversible irrespective of the consequences. This irreversibility is visible in both verbal and non-verbal communication. Bob wants to help his coworker, but Fatima strongly rejects his advances. As an outcome, he has to become defensive. Eventually, Bob realizes that Fatima does not want anything to do with him after telling him to leave her alone several times. Her attitude discourages Bob, and he looks down at the floor, probably because he feels terrible about the interaction he has had with Fatima. A person has to be aware of the messages he sends to others, whether verbally or non-verbally, and become aware of how others will perceive this message. According to Smith (2012), it is crucial to avoid negativity in the workplace. People who are always working to discourage and demoralize others are a poor reflection of the organization. Such individuals also hinder the organization from performing efficiently.

Communication is symbolic because words represent different ideas to people. This disparity in representation often leads to misunderstanding. The same words can have diverse interpretations for different people based on their backgrounds and cultures. At some point, Bob and Fatima think that the other is joking, but they each realize the misapprehension. Bob informs Fatima that he is not jesting when he says that he might start wearing his camos. He also expresses his displeasure when Fatima suspects him of thinking of her as an extremist. People tend to make the conversations about themselves in an attempt to demonstrate their empathy. Such individuals do this by focusing on their past encounters. However, people are often looking for understanding, and they may not want the person they are communicating with to use their experiences to compare their situations (Hedges, 2014). It is better and more appropriate to offer support during such times.

Bob and Fatima’s misunderstanding is based on the different forms that communication embodies in the workplace. Interaction is unavoidable based on the way Bob tries to assist Fatima consistently despite her rejections. However, the situation is resolved when she accepts his help, hence turning the workplace into a positive environment. Communication is also irreversible based on the distress caused by Fatima’s attitude toward Bob. Lastly, communication is symbolic and its interpretations vary due to the implications of people’s cultures and backgrounds. Understanding such aspects facilitates effective interface between people within the workplace.

References

Hedges, K. (2014). Five communication traits that turn people off. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/work-in-progress/2014/06/25/five-communication-traits-that-turn-people-off/.

Smith, J. (2012). 14 bad habits that can cost you your job. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/jacquelynsmith/2012/10/17/14-bad-habits-that-can-cost-you-your-job/#76ae8b3e5b53.

Change Management Strategies

Change Management Strategies

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Change Management Strategies

Question One

Over the years, Nike has set a standard as one of the most profitable organizations across the globe. Initially, its business model consisted of innovative, low-cost shoe designs sourced from low-wage countries. Their knowledge of sustainability in the production and manufacturing of products was limited to the scope of performance that the organization would achieve. The rationale underlying such an approach relied on the perception that the organization was managing risk while steering its activities towards creativity and innovation. Nike envisioned a period where it would produce sustainable products within a closed-loop system. However, in the 1990s, the company encountered a challenge in meeting the social responsibility requirements, particularly regarding their labor practices. The strategy was among the initial steps that Nike took in a bid to build proactive business practices.

Secondly, Nike resolved to become tactically proactive because of the lack of proper communication between factory employees. Managers from Korea and Taiwan possessed different communication languages and approaches that limited the organization’s ability to pursue sustainable practices. Nike also realized that the corporate responsibility team did not recognize their top priority. Attention shifted significantly to the team purposing to understand their plan and any issues that may affect the organization. Environmental issues emerged in the corporate business environment in the 1990s warranting the need to develop programs and processes that would understand the challenges posed to the organization. At this point, Nike established a corporate responsibility committee that would delve into the issues.

Question Two

            The strategy changed Nike’s direction as an organization in various ways. One of the areas that succumbed to increased concentration was that of labor and employment. Nike changed its course by focusing on labor issues, mainly due to constant criticism surrounding its human resource practices in the previous years. The resolution included addressing the code-of-conduct violations and offering contracts to workers in factories. The approach led to the identification and isolation of individual labor violation cases and situations resulting from a larger pattern. Additionally, the organization sought to pursue transparency with its consumers beyond the policing stage. The method reconstructed Nike’s vision warranting the need to combine labor, environment, and community issues.

            Nike was able to restructure its business operations to meet the imminent need for corporate responsibility and performance. Among the elements that changed significantly included Nike’s inclination towards reaching the consumer and steering innovation towards the market. The restructure also focused on capitalizing the company’s expected development in emerging markets as well as instituting a robust cost structure. In order to achieve positive corporate responsibility outcomes, Nike cut off its workforce by five percent and fused its supply chain from that of a product type to the sporting category. The objective of such a concept was to increase the nature of responsibility that the company owed to consumers. Nike enhanced its organizational structure to include a finance employee within the Sustainable Business and Innovation team.

Question Three

            The benefits of Nike’s strategy included improved sustainability performance as well as enhanced innovation. It was possible to carry out oversight and audits on the current sustainability approach that Nike employed since its inception, providing a guideline on probable and beneficial ventures. The measure enhanced the nature of communication between teams and members of the organization, which is an essential component of any corporate responsibility venture. The reconstructed organizational structure also ensured that the firm experienced a smooth flow of information, particularly the audit reports issued by the committee. Acquisition of accurate, timely, and sufficient audit information enhanced the decision-making capabilities of the managers and the committee concerning new investments and new business models.

            One of the challenges that emerged from Nike’s business model was the identification of necessary resources and the recruitment of people capable of developing scalable solutions. Owing to an increase in the number of activities and investments that Nike was required to do, it was integral to recognize and commission capable and experienced people as well as equip them with sufficient resources that would enhance their success. Similarly, time was a significant challenge that the organization had to deal with considering the changes, which appealed to consumers significantly. Achieving sustainable business and innovation requires ample time that would ensure a planning committee creates structures and milestones that would enable assessment.

Question Four

While monitoring the response of workers and consumers was essential in spearheading the pursuit of corporate responsibility, Nike identified a scenario-planning effort that would initiate the search for useful labor aspects. The endeavor also provided an opportunity where the organization would evaluate the prospective outcomes of following certain trends in sustainability. Nike had to change its resource acquisition approaches, which included sourcing water from the Asia Pacific region. The business landscape was likely to experience water challenges warranting the need to identify transition points for business survival. Nike changed its strategic direction because of their analysis of the business environments and the underlying facts that surrounded commercial activities.

Nike modified its scenario-planning exercise into an employee-engagement program that assisted the company in identifying the effect of macro-trends on the business. Workshops became an essential component of the organization’s chart that facilitated the participation of employees in seminars. The facilities addressed concerns such as the upcoming trends in corporate responsibility by focusing on the impact of current trends on the company’s future. For instance, the workshop shed light on the challenges that the firm may experience in the long-term such as energy shortage, climate change, the role of the internet and governance issues. The workshops also sought to educate the employees on the importance of shared accountability while pursuing corporate responsibility. Each member was required to acknowledge their role in the overall process and work towards meeting the required standards.

Question Five

            Nike has shown increased interest in current patterns that affect potential business practices. The investment in these aspects has transformed its sense of direction, planning, and strategy to meet the consumer requirements on corporate responsibility. Some of the altered elements included the allocation of financial and human resources to the pursuit of sustainability. As such, Nike launched an inventory analysis of the social and environmental implications of its activities highlighting the areas that may provide value. Similarly, Nike sought assistance from experts in different disciplines relying on auditors from external organizations to evaluate the organization’s position on corporate responsibility. Innovation capabilities are essential to the future success of the organization. The approach led to an introduction of the Sustainable Business & Innovation Lab that the company would use as a venue to source sustainable advancements through technology. The lab would allow employees to assess closed-loop materials as well as manufacturing and revenue sources identified from scarce resources. The strategy was a significant aspect of the organization’s corporate responsibility ventures as it ensured that the firm focuses on the longer-term opportunities that may affect the organization in future.

Animal and Human Cloning

Animal and Human Cloning

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Animal and Human Cloning

Introduction

The process of genetic cloning refers to the development of organisms that possess the same genetic copy, i.e., all aspects of their DNA are identical. Cloning occurs naturally among animals, for example in the case of identical twins. However, scientists have commercialized and exploited cloning in the laboratory setting. Reproductive cloning involves acquiring a cell from the cloned organism. The DNA originating from the donor cell is then relocated to an egg whose DNA has been extracted. This additional DNA is then activated, after which the cell develops into an embryo that is then transferred to finish its term inside a surrogate female. After the gestation period is complete, the surrogate will give birth to a cloned organism. The new cell is a genetic copy of its original donor. The scientific process of cloning is beneficial as it maximizes the regeneration of animal populations. The cloned animals are useful for drug and cosmetic tests. Many other benefits exist that justify the development and usage of this scientific procedure. However, reproductive cloning is marred by considerable challenges and complications. In addition, cloned animals have exhibited genetic diseases that are comparable to naturally reproduced animals. Despite the numerous potential benefits that cloning holds for science and agriculture, there is need to refine the existing technology before it can be commercialized.

The topic is important, as cloning has presented several massive opportunities to the healthcare sector. It holds the potential to alter major aspects of a country including its population, workforce, genetic predisposition, and expenditure on health and other social amenities. It is for this reason that cloning technology has attracted significant attention. For instance, cloning can drastically change the way in which the medical fraternity deals with fatal diseases. Across sectors such as the military and labor, cloning technology confers the ability to produce human beings that are more efficient. Most of the studies done on cloning have been experimental in nature where scientists experiment with diverse biochemical approaches with the intention of producing sustainable organisms. In the past, controversy has emerged over the ethical use of cloning technology to produce new animal and plant species.

The initial attempts at cloning were recorded in 1938 when Hans Spemann, in an experiment, replaced the nucleus in an egg with a foreign nucleus. Later, in1952, Robert Briggs and Thomas King tried to substitute an egg cell from a frog but the test failed (Pence, 2015). By 1970, many other scientists, such as John Gurdon, successfully managed to clone a frog. Gurdon’s efforts were groundbreaking since the cloned cell managed to grow into a tadpole before dying (Pence, 2015). Over the years, the experiments evolved and shifted to the use of cells from mice rather than frogs. As late as 1994, scientific progress in cloning did not deliver expected results. Neal First attempted to clone a sheep’s cell and only managed to reproduce 120 cells. Most of the progress in this field of science and medicine was very slow because of the limited research facilities.

The year 1995 marked another significant advancement for cloning. Two sheep – Moran and Megan – were successfully cloned. The pair was the first set of cloned animals that were the result of a different approach from the previous efforts in that the scientists used nuclei transfer. The main changes that were implemented by Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell involved collecting the nucleus from a cell culture (Pence, 2015). The approach was a significant deviation from gathering cells from living animals. Wilmut and Campbell were also responsible for cloning Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal that originated from an adult animal. Between the years 1998 and 2002, different scientists successfully cloned various animals including rhesus monkeys, mice, pigs, cows, and buffalos. In 2009, scientists managed to clone an animal from the cells of an extinct species (Pence, 2015). However, the cloned Pyrenean ibex died of pulmonary complications.

Arguments Supporting Cloning

Many benefits are evident in the practice of cloning within scientific circles. For one, it is a practical solution for families struggling with infertility. Previous efforts to overcome infertility such as In vitro fertilization (IVF) have proven to be largely ineffective (Smith, Bordignon, Babkine, Fecteau, & Keefer, 2014). Women experiencing challenges with fertility have to rely on human cloning. Use of cloning as a solution for infertility has faced oppositions from stakeholders such as governments, religious organizations, and other interest groups in the community. However, cloning may be the only solution for families facing issues of infertility and thus the need regulate rather than ban it. In this way, the state can allow infertile couples to enjoy the comfort of a family using this innovation. Based on such a benefit, human cloning may become more acceptable as technology is refined to address some of the concerns raised (Smith et al., 2014). As such, the technology may help address the needs of families that want genetically related offspring but struggle with reproductive failure. Most of such couples have sexual conditions that still lack medical cures (Tsekos & Bissa, 2017). With advancements already in place, cloning is one of the most convenient ways of having a biological child. When compared to other modes of procreation, human cloning has a higher percentage of positive outcomes compared to other infertility treatments (Keefer, 2015). The alternative treatments such as in vitro fertilization, cell transplants, and insemination have risky consequences including high mortality rates, deformation, and disability. It would thus be prudent to avoid using large sums of money on ineffective medical procedures (Ayala, 2015). Human cloning represents the only option for a wide variety of people within the community including barren women, gay couples, and single mothers who find it impossible to have their own children because of biological challenges.

Apart from reproductive cloning that can help resolve issues with infertility, gene cloning may be useful in treating various hereditary diseases. Genes responsible for conditions such as Down’s syndrome and Huntington’s disease can be identified and separated during the cloning process. The lives of many children can be saved through this technological innovation, as it will ensure that cases of congenital disabilities and mortality rates are reduced significantly. The majority of genetic diseases are inherited from parents and they later manifest as severe complications. The most common conditions include sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sach, and cystic fibrosis. The origin of these conditions is in the parents who carry the recessive gene for the specific genetic disorder (Tsekos & Bissa, 2017). Therefore, if such parents have a child, the offspring will have a higher likelihood of displaying a fatal disease. When such children are allowed to live with such incurable diseases, it places great financial pressure on the household. Many of the parents have to give these special children extra care even though their survival rate is low. It is essential to provide a lasting medical solution for households with recurrent cases of such fatal diseases, and this is where human cloning comes in. The approach is one of the most effective methods of selecting and eliminating the defective gene. The process can also stop the recurrent cases of such diseases within the lineage.

The ability of therapeutic cloning to overcome challenges that limit use of transplants to treat conditions also supports the development of human cloning. One of these challenges during transplantation is the lack of immunocompatibility between the donor and recipient and thus leading to the rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue. As Hochedlinger and Jaenisch (2003) observed, therapeutic cloning may be used to develop stem cells and tissue that are compatible with the recipient’s immune system and thus eliminate cases of transplant rejection. This potential would help in the treatment of blood disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes whose treatment faces the challenge of immunocompatibility. Further, unlike reproductive cloning which faces issues with inadequate genetic programming of the nucleus, such issues have not been noted in therapeutic cloning, which has been shown to select effectively for functional genes (Hochedlinger & Jaenisch, 2003). As such, therapeutic cloning offers a novel approach for treating ailments that require transplant without bringing about the complications associated with transplantation.

Arguments against Cloning

            While the arguments discussed above support the practice of cloning, there are an equally convincing set of disputes against this practice. The massive health risks associated with engaging in human cloning should discourage anyone from considering it as an option. It is very common for abnormal offspring to be born from cloning. Specifically for reproductive cloning, as Hochedlinger and Jaenisch (2003) highlighted, there have been challenges in activating genes responsible for embryonic development without activating those required for differentiation during the early stages of embryo development. Such error-prone mechanism has contributed to high cases of abnormalities for clones that arise from the process. The approach in itself is extremely risky on various levels (Wright, 2018). A specific concern is the likelihood that the genetic material collected from adult humans will continue to grow. In this way, it is possible that an offspring conceived through cloning can collect DNA information from their donor cells. Numerous cloning efforts using DNA from animals have resulted in disfigured offspring with severe abnormalities (Nisbet, 2016). Further, within the commercial healthcare setting, there are concerns that scientists may clone a large number of embryos and consequently destroy the deformed ones as they develop within the lab. This approach is inhumane, and may even fail to capture some of the abnormalities that emerge after birth.

            While cloning has resulted in the successful formation of independent living cells, there is still the issue of complete genetic construction. While a few cases such as Dolly’s have been successful, most of the previous attempts at cloning resulted in either death, paralysis, or total organ malfunction (Tsekos & Bissa, 2017). The results indicate that while the process holds great potential for scientific progress, much more work needs to be done in refining the technology before it can be commercialized. In its current state, the information on human cloning and genetic alteration is still insufficient to make an absolute conclusion about the outcome of each procedure. For this reason, cloning should be reserved for experimental purposes until major positive strides can be made in the discipline.

            Another reason for rejecting the continued usage of cloning for reproduction is the possibility of unscrupulous individuals abusing this technology. The utilization of cloning methods may open up the world to completely new approaches towards biochemistry. It is highly possible for this type of technology to be exploited for unethical purposes. In the military, access to such technology would be misused to generate thousands of soldiers to be used in wars. In under-populated countries, cloning may be abused to create the much-needed workforce to drive the economy. These and other examples show the real potential of cloning technology in the absence of a moral compass.

            Investing in an improvement of the existing cloning technology increases the chances of making the potential to clone a reality. Closely related to this argument is that embracing cloning technology in its current state would transform childbearing into a commercial activity (Jensen, 2016). For parents, it becomes not just a matter of producing children but determining different optimal aspects of their physical composition. In so doing, there is a possibility that parents may be inclined to handpick the perfect child rather than letting nature takes its course. Given that cloning demands recreating an existing genetic code, prospective parents have the option of selecting their child’s DNA. A more worrying implication of such an approach is that parents may consider their cloned children as property rather than fully fledged individuals. This is because cloning strips the embryo of its humanity. Cloning is, for all purposes, an artificial conception that detaches the human aspect from all embryos. Consequently, children originating from the cloning process may be denied their full rights like other ordinary children borne through conventional conception.

Conclusion

Personally, I support the move to increase focus on cloning technology. The analysis into cloning technology has revealed that it is a popular and fast-growing area within biochemistry. Scientists are interested in understanding more about animal genetics. They are also concerned with developing new ways to clone human beings and other animals successfully. So far, most cloning efforts have generated mixed results. Cloned animals may live, but they display signs of deformity, organ failure, and even disability. As such, while cloning technology is an excellent innovation that will no doubt change many aspects of life, there is need to consider the moral implications of embracing cloning in the lives of human beings. Additional information is necessary on the way in which the value of life will change after human cloning becomes an acceptable procedure.

References

Ayala, F. J. (2015). Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(29), 8879–8886

Hochedlinger, K., & Jaenisch, R. (2003). Nuclear transplantation, embryonic stem cells, and the potential for cell therapy. New England Journal of Medicine, 349, 275-86.

Jensen, E. A. (2016). The therapeutic cloning debate: Global science and journalism in the public sphere. New York, NY: Routledge.

Keefer, C. L. (2015). Artificial cloning of domestic animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(29), 8874-8878. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1501718112

Nisbet, M. (2016). The controversy over stem cell research and medical cloning. Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved from https://www.csicop.org/specialarticles/show/controversy_over_stem_cell_research_and_medical_cloning

Pence, G. E. (2015). Medical ethics: Accounts of ground-breaking cases. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Smith, L. C., Bordignon, V., Babkine, M., Fecteau, G., & Keefer, C. (2014). Benefits and problems with cloning animals. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 41(12), 919–924.

Tsekos, C. A., & Bissa, M. N. (2017). Two important issues in environmental ethics: Cloning and genetic engineering. Voice of the Publisher, 3, 34-41. https://doi.org/10.4236/vp.2017.33004

Wright, D. W. M. (2018). Cloning animals for tourism in the year 2070. Futures95, 58-75.

The Impact of John F. Kennedy’s Assassination on the United States

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name

Course

Date

The Impact of John F. Kennedy’s Assassination on the United States

The assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, was a tragic moment in American history. Even though the United States had experienced its fair share of political murders, Kennedy’s demise was appalling considering the tumultuous events that were concurrently occurring at the time, notably the Civil Rights Movement and the Cold War. As an outcome, many people have explored JFK’s death across all media with conjectures developed to illustrate the actual reason for his assassination. One particular anecdote is that the former president’s killer, Lee Harvey Oswald, committed the atrocity out of disdain for Kennedy’s liberal antics including his interaction with civil rights leaders. However, many people dispel such narratives due to lack of evidence. Nonetheless, historical analyses indicate that JFK’s death did not impose a considerable impact because he was unable to implement his core agenda: the tax cuts and the Civil Rights bill. John F. Kennedy’s assassination disillusioned the political atmosphere by causing a mistrust of the institution. His death, however, endorsed the establishment of landmark civil rights legislations that imposed a long-term impact on racial relations.  

The murder of John F. Kennedy in 1963 affected the political scene significantly. Before his death, Kennedy focused on addressing the issues that plagued the country. One of the problems in his agenda involved the relations between the white majority and the minorities, especially African Americans. At the time, the legal regime subjected African Americans to racial discrimination and separation as evidenced by the implications of the Jim Crow Rules and dejure segregation (George 104). In addition to this, southern states such as Mississippi and Virginia regularly partook in violent actions against blacks, primarily due to the implications of the Civil Rights Movement (George 51). In this respect, Kennedy’s attempt to address the situation by endorsing desegregation was met with disapproval. The president’s popularity had declined considerably from 70 percent – a factor attributed to the desertion of whites from the Southern region (Barone). Interestingly, Kennedy’s views and support for civil rights were received positively across other parts of the United States, establishing him as a potent political opponent for the next elections if he were still alive.  

The nature of his popularity contributed to the disillusionment that American politics suffered after his demise. Even though he had expressed the need to cut taxes via the Revenue Act of 1964, and to ratify privileges for all African Americans and minority groups through the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Kennedy died without fulfilling these directives (Barone). As an outcome, Americans lost faith in their political institutions. In the years after 1963, civilians distrusted the government and endorsed strategies such as impeachment that were absent in the 1940s and 1950s (Barone). A good illustration of political mistrust was evidenced by the rejection of Presidents Lyndon Johnson due to his conduct regarding the Vietnam War and the removal of Richard Nixon (Schulman 152; Barone). Politics was also marred by criticism influenced by theories that affirmed Kennedy’s assassination as a move by communists to undermine America’s liberal values (George 62). However, the core factor for Americans’ disappointment with American politics was attributed to the failure characterizing the Civil Rights bill’s implementation (George 29). Even though the bill’s ratification was imminent, Kennedy’s death stalled such efforts further affecting the acknowledgment of civil rights.

Even though attempts at implementing the bill were affected, Kennedy’s assassination imposed significant pressure on the consequent government. After assuming office within the same year, President Lyndon B. Johnson focused on applying legislation that would enhance his public reputation (George 113). Using the proposed bill that Kennedy had forwarded to Congress, Johnson was able to ratify the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which was a landmark proclamation based on the impact it imposed on race relations (Schulman 97). Unlike Kennedy, Johnson was aware of the role that Southern politicians played in rejecting the bill’s ratification, primarily because he employed the same strategy while in Congress (George 113). As such, he was able to bypass such limitations and ratify the Act allowing all races to engage in interstate commerce, access public facilities, gain employment, and receive housing. The impact of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was also illustrated by the passage of other landmark laws in the late 1960s such as the Voting Rights Act of 1964 and the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (George 125). The rules permitted the incorporation of African Americans in the voting process and enabled the migration of other nationalities into the United States.

Critics have argued that the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963 did not have an impact on American politics. However, the argument is irrational considering the manner in which it created a sense of mistrust among Americans. Since Kennedy had elicited disapproval among Southern whites and received support from other regions, his assassination was viewed as a silencing endeavor aimed at restricting progress, especially in the implementation of civil rights. Nonetheless, Americans’ disillusionment with the country’s political institutions enhanced the exercise of constitutional privileges by sanctioning impeachment provisions against presidents Lyndon B. Johnson and Richard Nixon. Consequently, Kennedy’s death laid the foundation for the ratification of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited the discrimination of all persons by race, color, sex, age, disability, and nationality. The event in question indirectly promoted the inculcation of the Voting Rights Act of 1964 and the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 further altering the country’s politics and society in the long-term.

Works Cited

Barone, Michael. “How JFK’s Assassination Changed American Politics.” The Washington Examiner, 1 Nov. 2013. www.washingtonexaminer.com/how-jfks-assassination-changed-american-politics. Accessed 31 Jul. 2018.

George, Alice. The Assassination of John F. Kennedy: Political Trauma and American Memory. Routledge, 2017.

Schulman, Bruce. Lyndon B. Johnson and American Liberalism. Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008.

5 C’s Assignment

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name

Course

Date

5 C’s Assignment

            Chapter 13 of the assigned reading text discusses the industrial age, which was characterized by a movement from realism to modernism. Cultural and artistic traditions were challenged in this period in favor of progress and materialism. The new attributes were exemplified by embracing modernity and the adoption of new technologies, questioning traditions, alienation, and criticizing the cost of advancement. The industrial revolution created two new economic classes of people in society: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The industrial age was typified by the belief that science, industrialization, and technology could be used to identify the truth, to solve all problems, and to achieve the highest human potential possible.

            The industrial age demonstrates a movement away from other previous topics covered earlier because it represents the progenitors of today’s modern world. Rapid advances in science and technology characterized the industrial age; aspects that can be construed to have created new notions about people’s potential to achieve grand fetes that were previously thought impossible (Toffler 127). Unlike conservationism, which was pervasive during the Victorian age, the industrial age promoted utilitarianism and realism that emanated from scholars and philosophers such as John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham. The academics and thinkers hypothesized that people and society should choose actions that conferred the greatest pleasure for the most people. Modernity was portrayed through realism in visual arts and literature to depict the ordinary world in a style that can be described as a sober detachment from reality.   

            The industrial age discussed in the chapter focused on realism as an artistic movement; both in visual arts and literature as illustrated by the works of Charles Dickens, in his novel titled “Oliver Twist,” where he explores the consequences of industrialization and civilization. Unlike previous periods such as the Renaissance and the Enlightenment, the industrial age prompted people to ask hard questions about the net effect of industrialization and modernity on society (Patten 73). Previous eras focused on veiling the true nature of people’s lives and thoughts by projecting an aura of affluence that was only enjoyed by a few elites in society at the expense of the poor. The observation does not negate the fact that these inequalities did not exist in the industrial age. In fact, the unfair and unjust stratification of society became even more pronounced in the industrial age, but at the same time, people were capable of denouncing and highlighting these attributes through art and literature.

            Notions and insights garnered from the discussion in chapter 13 will be instrumental in informing my future decisions regarding how to handle situations of severe inequality and oppression in society. Artists such as Charles Dickens demonstrated that individuals could articulate issues bedeviling society regardless of the need for drastic measures such as violent revolutions (Veblen 146). Additionally, the intellectuals formed new insight that has proven instrumental in the development of contemporary ethical and legal frameworks. Interestingly, the industrial age did not discount all other previous artistic or philosophical movements, but it refined some and assimilated others suitable for the modern world.

            The industrial age, in my opinion, was and is still an age that will change the fortunes of humanity for the best or for the worst depending on the choices that people make. New technological and scientific innovations are revolutionizing the art world with digital technology such as three-dimensional (3D) printing. Novel channels of communication and expression are bound to change society’s response and reaction to art.

Works Cited

Patten, Robert L. Charles Dickens, and ‘Boz’: The Birth of the Industrial-Age Author. Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Toffler, Alvin. “Revolutionary Wealth.” New Perspectives Quarterly, vol. 30, no.4, 2013, pp. 122-130.

Veblen, Thorstein. The Instinct of Workmanship and the State of the Industrial Arts. Routledge, 2017.

Annotated Bibliography: Why Should Toxic Chemicals Be Regulated?

Annotated Bibliography: Why Should Toxic Chemicals Be Regulated?

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Annotated Bibliography: Why Should Toxic Chemicals Be Regulated?

The discourse on the regulation of toxic chemicals is attributed to their adverse consequences on people and the environment. Over the years, companies have polluted natural resources to save costs required in implementing protective procedures. Despite the applications of legal measures and the inclination towards sustainability, much needs to be done in ensuring that toxic chemicals are properly managed and disposed of.

Cutler, D., & Dominici, F. (2018). A breath of bad air: Cost of the Trump environmental agenda may lead to 80000 extra deaths per decade. Journal of the American Medical Association, 319(22), 2261-2262. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2684596?appid=scweb&appid=scweb&alert=article.  

In this scholarly article, Cutler and Dominici argue that the amendments proposed by the Trump administration regarding environmental regulations are more likely to impose adverse consequences on human health. The need to repeal regulations such as the Clean Power Plan Rule and the Waters of the United States rule will expose Americans to cardiovascular and respiratory ailments (Cutler & Dominici, 2018). The study is aimed at environmental lobbyists and policymakers because it highlights the illogical nature of altering laws that have managed to safeguard public health against exposure to dangerous industrial chemicals such as mercury, nitrogen oxide, and sulfur dioxide.

Krimsky, S. (2017). The unsteady state and inertia of chemical regulation under the US Toxic Substances Control Act. PLoS Biology, 15(12), e2002404. Retrieved from http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2002404.

In the research study, Krimsky (2017) argues that several dimensions have impeded the application of a strong regulatory approach towards chemical safety. Even though the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 proved instrumental in curbing the commercial manufacturing of toxic chemicals, aspects such as the inability to verify irrational risk and insufficient federal authority in the acquisition and safety and health information have necessitated a call for change.

The scholarly article is intended for policymakers since it concentrates on the present drawbacks that affect the regulatory regime on the production of industrial chemicals.

Conclusion

The articles annotated illuminate the current challenges facing the regulation of toxic chemicals in the United States. Environmental policies such as the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 and related rules have been subject to debilitating factors that hinder their effectiveness. Nonetheless, the information conveyed in these works calls for adequate attention towards such aspects to reinforce the standardization of toxic chemicals in the long-term.

References

Cutler, D., & Dominici, F. (2018). A breath of bad air: Cost of the Trump environmental agenda may lead to 80000 extra deaths per decade. Journal of the American Medical Association, 319(22), 2261-2262. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2684596?appid=scweb&appid=scweb&alert=article.

Krimsky, S. (2017). The unsteady state and inertia of chemical regulation under the US Toxic Substances Control Act. PLoS Biology, 15(12), e2002404. Retrieved from http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2002404.