Proper Use of Social Media in Health Care

Proper Use of Social Media in Health Care

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Proper Use of Social Media in Health Care

Technology has had a significant impact on healthcare operations. Still,  health practitioners require additional insight into how innovative ideas and techniques work to avoid blunders that may affect their performance. Nurses need to be familiar with HIPAA rules that offer valuable direction on how to defend protected health information (PHI). The information is essential to ensure privacy, security, and confidentiality when using social media. Failure to be conversant with relevant regulations could result in undesirable outcomes that affect individual and organizational outcomes.

Describing PHI

Under HIPAA, PHI is any data or information in a medical record that can be utilized to identify a client or patient and that is formed, utilized, or disclosed in the process of offering care, such as conducting a diagnosis or treatment. Examples of PHI that health workers interact with daily include patient names, dates, email addresses, fax and telephone numbers, and addresses, such as zip code, county, and city (HIPAA Journal, 2021). Other types of PHI include demographic statistics, such as culture, sex, date of birth, lab outcomes, medication, and ID numbers. HIPAA further describes PHI as independently identifiable information about the past, present, and future health condition of a patient formed, gathered, relayed, or managed by a HIPAA-certified entity in connection to the provision of health services or payment for healthcare (HIPAA Journal, 2021). Nurses must safeguard PHI all the time, including when using social media.

Privacy, Security, and Confidentiality

Privacy, security, and confidentiality are major concerns in health care that emerge with the use of technology. Privacy is the connection between the gathering and transmission of data in a way that does not infringe on political and legal issues surrounding the use of such information (George & Bhila, 2019). Security means enacting measures, tools, and resources to safeguard sensitive data and information. Confidentiality is about safeguarding data against unauthorized, illegal, or unintentional reach, use, or transmission of data (George & Bhila, 2019). Adequate protection of delicate electronic health information requires interdisciplinary collaboration to achieve the most appropriate outcome. The engagement provides a chance to learn from different professionals how to protect data effectively (George & Bhila, 2019). More fundamentally, collaborations offer a chance to identify flaws that could expose data to the wrong hands.

Evidence relating to Social Media Use and PHI

Interprofessional team members need to be conversant with some evidence concerning social media use that may increase their attention to the formalities guiding the use of such technology in health care. A vital piece of information that practitioners must understand is that they may lose their job for not observing HIPPAA regulations on social media use. Information by HIPAA Journal (2018) reveals how a nurse at a health facility in Texas focusing on pediatrics care lost her work for contravening HIPAA regulations. The journal further informs how hundreds of other nurses across the state and the country lose their position for not observing the regulations (HIPAA Journal, 2018). Health care organizations place burdensome regulations against interdisciplinary team members who contravene social media regulations. Such members either lose their position or their job. Organizations that violate rules on social media use are at risk of paying huge fines, which have compelled many organizations to establish a range of measures to avert possible confidentiality, privacy, and security violations (HIPAA Journal, 2018). Institutions train their personnel and equip them with information about various legislations influencing social media use.


George, J., & Bhila, T. (2019). Security, confidentiality and privacy in health of healthcare data. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, 3 (4), 373-377.

HIPAA Journal. (2018). Texas nurse fired for social media HIPAA violation.

HIPAA Journal. (2021). What is considered protected health information under HIPAA?



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Various interventions would be essential in reducing incidences and spread of STDs. It is possible to embrace primary prevention methods such as offering relevant information and education, launching campaigns against targeted diseases, providing vaccines, advocating for condoms, and proper use of microbicides. It is also possible to intervene by increasing screening among vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and to embrace STI case management.


The purpose of the paper by Cohen, Council, and Chen (2019) is to describe possible ways for preventing and treating STIs that continue to be a problem in many societies. The author hopes that the information will help curb STIs cases, particularly among highly vulnerable groups.

Data Collected

The authors gathered data from various secondary sources by conducting a systematic literature review. The authors examine multiple databases and identify and use articles that are relevant to the study. Exploring various sources offers a better chance to acquire a wide range of valuable data.

Study Steps

The authors follow specific steps to complete the study. They begin with identifying the problem then move to review the literature. The researchers then select the study questions, objectives and form a hypothesis. The team proceeds to choose the study design before settling on the sample design. The scholars then move to identify the sample before gathering data and analyzing its content.


The scholars find that it is possible to address STIs through several initiatives. They recommend timely testing and treatment and advocate for adequate sensitization on the need to practice safe sex (Cohen, Council & Chen, 2019). The authors urge different stakeholders to join the fight against STIs.


The study reiterates that it is possible to treat some STIs and effectively manage those who do not have a cure, such as HIV/AIDS. The scholars also urge researchers to conduct more studies on the subject to give more insight into handling STIs.

Limitations in the Study

The study presents several limitations that impact the nature of the outcome. One evident restriction is that the authors use more than two decades old sources, which may affect the quality or reliability of the data. The other limitation is that the authors do not use graphical presentations such as charts and tables to summarize vital data.

Why the Study is Valuable for the Project

The study is valuable for the project because it gives relevant information about managing STIs. It reminds readers that contracting STI is not the end of life and that it is possible to enact measures that would improve quality of life. More fundamentally, the proposed intervention methods make the study necessary for the project.


Cohen, M., Council, O., & Chen, J. (2019). Sexually transmitted infections and HIV in the era of antiretroviral treatment and prevention: the biologic basis for epidemiologic synergy. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 22(6), e25355.




One-way ANOVA

  1. K = 3, N = 30
  2. ANOVA Table
Source SS df MS F
Between 85.12 2 42.56 0.5984
Within 76.14 1 76.14  
Total 161.26 3  

P-value < 0.05

  • Critical F-Value (2,27) = 3.3541
  • F-Calculated, 0.5984 < F – Critical, 3.3541, thus fail to reject the null hypothesis.
  • Tukey HSD = 3.44
15 SPF vs. 30 SPF Significantly different
15 SPF vs. 50 SPF Significantly different
30 SPF vs. 50 SPF Significantly different

Two-way ANOVA


  1. No
  2. No
  3. No
  4. False
  5. False
  6. True
  7. True
  8. True
  9. False
  10. True
  11. B-Topic

Activity-Based Costing (ABC) System

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Activity-Based Costing (ABC) System

The ABC Concept

ABC system refers to a costing technique that allocates additional and overhead costs to the related services or products by recognizing the relationship between prices, manufactured products, and overhead activities. The ABC method is utilized in manufacturing industries. It is used for costing operating activities such as units of work, individual tasks with particular targets. The respective rates for cost drivers are applied to obtain direct and indirect costs for specific activities. Therefore, the ABC system can improve the accuracy and reliability of data costs by producing actual costs as it classifies costs according to the process.

The Seven Steps of ABC

The seven steps of the ABC system are crucial in assigning costs to their respective drivers by calculating accurate costs in a production process. The first step involves activity identification by determining and grouping particular activities in activity pools, ancillary activities related to a service or product line. The second step requires the classification of processes with the same activities. This may include categories that provide support or are central to production. The third step involves cost allocation based on the first and second steps, where prices are apportioned to the respective activity pool. For instance, human resources costs are allocated to the indirect managerial costs in a company. The fourth step calculates the activity rates by giving activities a real currency value and adding all weights assigned to activity pools. For example, the production labor hours are expressed as a weighted labor rate with benefit costs. Step five involves setting cost-to-cost objects defined as final results offered to consumers. Step six consists of calculating the ABC costs after determining the activities, pools, rates, and things. The costs are calculated as assigned to a particular activity. Finally, the seventh step is preparing and distributing management reports of the costing analysis. Thus, this is done by placing the cost data coherently and concisely for communication purposes to justify the cost analysis in the decision-making process by the internal management.

Numeric Example of ABC

ABC manufacturing company allocates $10,000 in overhead costs to set up 4,000 machines, and 200 devices are used in the production of product X. The cost drivers of producing product X are 4,000 machines. The cost driver rate is$2.50, given by the total overhead costs divided by cost drivers ($10,000 / 4,000). The cost of objects is 200 as it is the number of machines directly related to producing product X. Therefore, the overhead cost in product X is $500, given by the cost driver rate multiplied by the cost object.

Differences between ABC and Traditional System

The ABC systems are supplemental cost accounting processes providing decision-making information to the internal management of a business that the traditional costing approaches lack. However, the ABC cannot displace the traditional costing systems as it does not meet the financial reporting requirements in an organization. The ABC method mainly emphasizes costs that contribute to producing services or products while the traditional costing does not consider indirect costs. Additionally, the ABC system improves the accuracy of indirect cost attained during cost allocation, unlike traditional costing techniques that emphasize direct production costs burdening the products with the fixed costs. Furthermore, the conventional system is used for external reporting in a company to investors, but ABC costing is for reporting internally to a firm’s management for the decision-making process. Therefore, I believe that the firms prefer the ABC system as it is an alternative to the traditional costing system as it is more accurate, specific, and reliable.



Question 1

The theoretical probability of rolling a fair die and getting one is.Therefore, there is one out of six chances of obtaining one in a fair die.

Question 2

The probability of obtaining one in a fair die is,

Therefore, the probability of rolling the die six times will be

Question 3

When an experiment is performed on rolling the die six times, it will give a different probability from the theoretical answer. Experimental probability results of an experiment, as it is an outcome’s probability based on what happens on practice or actuality, for instance, rolling the die and recording the actual results from the experiment. On contrarily, theoretical probability refers to calculating the probability of an event happening without actually experimenting with it. For instance, the probability for an event occurring in a perfect situation when a die is rolled six times.

Question 4

Experimental probability is different from theoretical probability. Experimental probability is an outcome’s probability based on what happens in practice or actuality after experimenting, while theoretical probability is the ideal probability of what is expected to occur in a perfect situation obtained through calculations.

Theoretical probability is given by;

Experimental probability is given by;

Question 5

On increasing the number of trials in rolling the die, the experimental probability gets closer and closer to the theoretical probability’s answer. This is because the more experiments I perform, the more possible outcomes when an experiment is done enough times.

Digital Transformation

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Digital Transformation

Q1. Digital transformation integrates digital technology in all areas of the business environment, defining how the business or organization works.

Q2. Data Analytics is the scientific analysis of data to get usable information.

Q3. (Your answer must be on the table below)

A DT&DA will typically start with a Digital project’s strategic drivers – i.e., what and how can technology deliver strategic value to the organization. In this section, we will consider the drivers of strategic value to ‘frame’ our proposed DT&DA project.

  • You should be clear in what each dimension means and why it is essential for your client organization.
  • You should be able to defend it in front of your bosses/investors (as in a ‘dragons den).
  • The dimensions chosen should be desirable and feasible within context.
  • Treat the dimensions and the strategic spider process as an inquiry, not a statement of fact.
  1. In inquiring, we need to be:
    1. precise in the meaning of our ideas, constructs, etc.,
    1. to provide detail to deeply explore the key issues and
    1. develop transparency in the conclusions drawn (others need to know how we have concluded).
  • Try to identify ‘measures’ which indicate ‘how do we know we have got there’ to each dimension;
  • The strategic Spider will be referred to as we progress through the program regularly. We will adapt it, change it, adapt it, refine it.

 You can use the template (over) to get started. You can include explanatory text in and around it. Use additional sheets if required.

Define each measurement (we can call it a ‘KPI’ for now). This will help us define our Digital Transformation, ensure it is scoped with strategic impact, and ultimately how we might consider its impact.

Add or take away columns or rows as you see fit.

(Your answer for question 3 is to fill out the table below)

Add or take away columns or rows as you see fit.

KPI definition Measure now In 1 Year In 2 Years In 3 Years
Architecture Design Approval of the design 60% 86% 100%
Component and Detail Design Functioning and appropriately interactive components 40% 60% 70%
Algorithm Design Compatible algorithm 40% 60% 70%
Database Design Compatible database 40% 60% 70%
User Interface Design   Easy to work with interface 40% 60% 70%

Q4. Diagnosis & Contextual Analysis for Digital Transformation (your answer must go on the table for this question #4

Problem Diagnosis

Undertaking a diagnosis can be considered an inquiring activity that focuses on perceived ‘problems and the situations that cause the so-called problems. The inquiry is undertaken simultaneously by both clients and consultants.All DT&DA projects are applied in human organizations. Ignoring these dimensions will cause problems later. Further, it is effortless to throw technology at a perceived problem and subsequently realize that the ‘real’ problem remains.

  • Diagnose your client’s organizational context, identifying the explicit and implicit (or hidden) problems.
  • Treat the diagnosis as an inquiry, not a statement of fact.
  • Do not let yourself get into a thinking mode that is ‘whinging.’ Try to look at the situation analytically and thoughtfully.
  • Remember ‘blaming others is not an intellectual diagnosis. If you find yourself blaming others, likely, you do not understand their situation thoroughly. Try to understand their situation and the source of your frustration with them.

Use the space below to make notes of your thoughts.

Try to be as straightforward as possible, and justify your ideas.

The main problem within this organization is a lack of enthusiasm. Most potential users are not ready to adopt the new system and embrace its transformation agenda. This is coupled with inadequate training that may hinder its adoption. Another significant problem includes the lack of technical support from the organization as there are few employees with technical expertise.

Q5. Problems and Symptoms

A diagnosis is more than ‘identifying problems.’ Rather it is an inquiry into the fundamental causes (and effect) of the problems. For instance, in organizations, one ‘problem’ is often related to or caused by another problem. So a diagnosis includes the analysis of ‘other factors’ which give rise to a given problem. In effect, our ‘problem’ might be the symptom of something else. Both problem and symptom should be explored.

Taking each problem that you identified in the previous step, write down if it is caused by something else. If so, try to articulate what causes this ‘problem’ to arise. Use the space below to express your ideas. You can use a Rich Picture to express the context of the problems that you see!

Problem Causes
Lack of enthusiasm Unwillingness to change
Lack of Technical support Inadequate technical personnel
Lack of end-user training Poor organizational planning

Q6. Defining your Digital Transformation & Data Analytics Project

From your spider, your diagnosis, define the most important area for your Digital Transformation. Explain why you have concluded this.

Please note

You may want to identify a small and focused digital transformation/data analytics project in your department or business unit. Or you may want to develop the scope more widely. This scoping is a question of context, desirability, and feasibility.

The digital transformation area is the development and implementation of record and grading management systems for the institution. This is attributed to problems facing the organization concerning poor record management and enthusiasm towards the current systems. Hence, this system will ensure all student records are kept safe and secure and appropriate grades awarded.

Q7. Digital Building Blocks: Quick-Build (server-side) Environments

Outline your ideas (so far) of a digital technology that may help you achieve your Digital Transformation.

Please note

  • This may or may not be based on example technologies that have been demonstrated.
  • You should note that the definition of technology is not usually considered sufficient to solve problems or achieve strategic goals. Technology should be considered an ‘integrated element’ (in systems terms) or an ‘enabler’ of processes, in more general ‘management speak’!

Try to be as straightforward as possible, and justify your ideas

The main idea is to develop a student record and grading system. The system will enhance students’ recording and grading, thus reducing the workload, ensuring efficient data management and accurate grading.

Q8. Process Modelling for Digital Transformation Management

Take one process and define its inputs and outputs. What are the characteristics of the process that have you identified?

     Is it a ‘primary task’ process?

     Is it an ‘Issue based’ process or a ‘primary task’ process?

     Is it a ‘project for change’ process?

     Is it a ‘control process’?

One of the processes is primary task. The process is grading system development, which is design to receive input from different components that are then processed to get the output desired.

Q9. Identify 4 Different Types of Processes

Write down four processes from your chosen case organization (i) a ‘primary task, (ii) an ‘issue based’ process. (iii) a ‘project process’, and (iv) a ‘control process’. Insert your ideas below:

  1. Primary task – grading system development
  2. Issue-based – Student record system
  3. Control – graded work, submitted worker and student roaster
  4. Project – Student record and grading management system

Q10. Process Modelling for Information Systems Management

Activity: Try to apply the constructs to help to define at least one primary task process from your case organization, using the systems constructs.

Treat this as an inquiring activity to explore and clarify your selected process. At a minimum, you should explore the following constructs highlighted in the table and describe how each applies in the current process, expressed in systems terms:

Construct Your ideas about the application of the construct to a primary task process in your given organization
Transformation, What is being transformed? Student record and grades
Measures of Performance How is the process judged? What data needs to be gathered to judge when it is not functioning correctly?   The capability of transforming scores into grades The capability of capturing student registration details Data to be captured include; student’s name, scores, registration number, exam, period, instructor.
Systematics How systematic is it currently? Please justify your argument. It starts with registration to capture instructor and student records, exam scores, and grading.
Client Beneficiaries Identify the different beneficiary groups? Rhetorically use this construct, i.e., explore the effectiveness of the process in serving different client beneficiaries. Beneficiaries are students, instructors, and parents.      
Emergence Can you identify any emergent properties that arise out of its operationalization? Problems include retention of data and its safety.  
Hierarchy Can you start identifying sub-processes using the systems constructs? Draw one process and then its sub-processes. Administration sub-processes

Q11. Process Modelling for Information Systems Management

You might notice that in Digital Transformation, the study of an organizational process is done first, and then it is possible to identify resources (including information) that it needs. Unlike in other related areas, e.g., computing, we are fundamentally re-designing organizations.

Using a primary task and related processes from your case organization, undertake the following:

QA. Use a Data Flow Diagram to depict (i) the flows of data through the system, (ii) the data stores that hold data in the system, (iii) the human actions that operate on the data, and (iv) the ‘external entities that interact with the system.

Figure 1: Student Grading system – Data flow diagram

The flows of data through the system

  1. Data entry; Class roster, grading parameters, and submitted work
  2. Data output; Graded work, grade report, and final grade
  3. Data Stores holding data; Grading system and student records system
  4. Human actions that operate on the data; Instructor and student
  5. External entities that interact with the system; student

QB. What do you see as the technology options for the improvement of that system?

The system can incorporate precise auditing capabilities to ensure errors in the recording area are reduced.

QC. What other optimizations can you identify to improve the current system(s)

Other optimization capabilities include enhanced and tight security protocols to reduce unauthorized access to student records.

QD. What resources does the current system need/what resources does the future system need/what is the difference between the two?

Resources for the current system include capital, software licenses, and hardware. In addition to the current software licenses, the future system will require extra expertise to develop tight security and appropriate algorithms for precise recording.

QE. Shortfalls in your inquiry/Shortfalls in the process modeling techniques

The significant shortfalls include getting appropriate modeling standard methods and identifying the business value for the process modeling.

Referring to your last task, explore how difficult you found it. Was it easy or difficult? Did you have sufficient detail about the process? Do you need to develop better or different process modeling? If so, why not explore how to make a better inquiry using different techniques. Identify a more suitable technique and say why it is relevant/appropriate…

(Your answers for questions 11 includes a, b, c, d, and e) Answer must be under each question, please

What Operations Management is

What Operations Management is


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Instructor’s Name


Question 1

Operations management (OM) is the organization of business practices in a bid to craft the optimumpotential efficiency within a business setup. Therefore, OM is associated with the conversion of labor as well as materials into products efficiently, thus maximizing the profits of the said business (Ruffini et al., 2020). Apart from that, OM fits into an organization in the way it helps a business manage, control, and supervise all the functions, such as production, marketing, finance, and human resources.

Question 2

Operations managers tend to hold the following titles like Operations Manager, Supply Chain Manager, Operations Analyst, Operations Officer, Supply Chain Coordinator, Inventory Manager, and Inventory Controller (Lewis, 2019).

Question 3

According to Heizer, there are 10decisionswhich pertain toOM, as follow.

  1. Designing of products based on market research, forecasting, and trends.
  2. Quality management is a decision that involves iterative testing and debugging to make a product less erroneous (Bayraktar et al., 2007).
  3. Process and capacity design is a decision that involves retaining the same number of production workers despite increase in demand.
  4. Location strategy entails making decision based on equitable distribution of products.
  5. Layout design as well as strategy decisionthat encompasses designation of workflows and facilities (Bayraktar et al., 2007).
  6. Human resources and job designdecision involves matching employees perfectly to their expertise and competence.
  7. Supply chain managementencompasses advanced information systems to impact the supply chain positively. 
  8. Inventory management entails fitting dissimilarkinds of inventory which match to the needs of varied business organizations (Bayraktar et al., 2007).
  9. Scheduling is one of the decisions signaling the use of automatons.
  10. Maintenance involves making the right decision concerning servers, facilities, and information system.

Question 4

According to Marcus Lemonis, the 3Ps of running a business involve people, process, and product. Therefore, the 3 Ps are formulated into OM in respect to finding the right individual for the job, who would initiate effective process to create products (Marcus, n.d.).

Question 5

There are various fundamental criteria for endorsing the operations strategy. I consider customer-driven strategies as a measure of understanding the tastes and preferences of each client, thus providing them with more customized products (Rytter et al., 2007). Therefore, customer-driven strategies are widely endorsed by many businesses because they have far-reaching positive consequences.


Bayraktar, E., et al. (2007). Evolution of operations management: Past, present and future. Management Research News, 30(11), 843-871. doi:10.1108/01409170710832278

Lewis, A. M. (2019). Operations management: A research overview. doi:10.4324/9781351034982

Marcus, L. (n.d.). What people/process/product means and how it can help your business. Retrieved from

Ruffini, J. A., et al. (2020). Organization design in operations management. International Journal of Operations & Production Management20(7), 860-879. doi:10.1108/01443570010330801

Rytter, M. G., et al. (2007). Conceptualizing operations strategy processes. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 27(10), 1093-1114.doi:10.1108/01443570710820648



Summary on “Don’t Make Me Think” by Steve Krug

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Summary on “Don’t Make Me Think” by Steve Krug

The author of the book highlights about the importance of building a uniquely different website that embedded on the approach of comprehending human psychology, aside from focusing entirely on technological design. In this regard, Krug underscores a series of principles and instructions that guide a web designer while creating a usable web. The main intent of the writer is to reinforce clear and succinct comprehension among the users of a web. In other words, these important elements for designing a usable web are intended to reshape the behaviors of uses while navigating the sites. Therefore, the book, “Don’t Make Me Think” equips its readership with easily applied insights relevant for improving the usability of users based on their psychology.

Three Laws of Usability

Fundamentally, the book provides its readership with three sets of laws that regulate website usability. In simpler terms, the book considers something to be usable when an average individual can easily contemplate about the desired results, without having to action thinking. Therefore, Krug categorically enlists the following laws as follow. The first law on designing a much usable web is “do not make me think”. From Krug’s point of view, this is the principal rule since it intends to discourage designers from creating webs, which require users to take time to think before attempting an action. The reason is that many users get distracted whenever they pause for split-seconds. Of course, this rule is helpful in equipping designers with the rationality to create effortless and self-explanatory webs. Particularly, a web is regarded as self-evident when its users “get” insights about the clickable links and custom of obvious words. The second law is about “Making every click an obvious choice with no need to think”. According to Krug, the number of clicks in a website does not matter so long as the user does not invoke thinking while touching the clicks. Nonetheless, the writer only considers the possibility of having non-mindless and unobvious clicks during slow Internet connectivity. The third law, “half the words on each page, and half them further” seeks to equip designers with the human psychology associated with cutting down unnecessary distractions in web content. Undoutedly, this rule makes sense whenever key contents of a web stand out as short and precise.

Designing Usable Websites

Further, Krug mention ways that one would apply to design much usable websites. He provides instructions that a majority of web users do not read websites sequentially. Rather, they scan web pages. Also, they do not make optimal choices, but instead action reasonable preferences. Indubitably, the author states that users would opt for guesswork at the expense of making the right attitudes. Apart from that, the author argues in favor of executing usability testing as measure of checking the human psychology of users while on the page, and further identifying possible errors.

In summary, Krug advises web designers to implement easy scanning techniques by use of prevailing conventions, operative visual hierarchies, formatting content, and additionally make each click mindless as well as obvious. Likewise, the book recommends the need ofstriking out plausible distractions that tend to hinder easy scanning and navigation among the users. Therefore, the book summarizes that the three laws on the web usability need to be combined in a bid to make pages more obvious and mindless, thus impacting positively on the human psychology of users.

Works Cited

Krug, Steve. Don’t Make Me Think – A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability. 2nd ed., New Riders, 2014.

Reflective Journal: Learning Objectives for Chapters 10 and 12

Reflective Journal: Learning Objectives for Chapters 10 and 12

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Reflective Journal: Learning Objectives for Chapters 10 and 12

Chapter 10

The learning objectives for Chapter 10 majorly focus on fiscal planning and health care reimbursement. The first section of the chapter provides an understanding of fiscal terminologies, giving the ability to differentiate between various concepts and understand further discussion. Subsequently, topics touching on major types of budgets that include personal, operating, and capital ones are examined to increase learners’ knowledge of fiscal management. . While the chapter provides a clear differentiation between the four most common budgeting methods (incremental, zero-based, flexible, and new performance budgeting), it also helps to discover the strengths and weaknesses of flexible budgets, which is a necessary skill for a nursing leader. The section also identifies the major parties that should be included in the formulation of a fiscal plan, including subordinates and followers of the organization. Likewise, the chapter emphasizes the importance of designing a decision package to aid fiscal planning. Similarly, it sets a basis for the development of diagnosis-related groups and other payment systems as well as the management of care initiatives. Lastly, the chapter examines the resulting impacts on quality and cost when utilizing appropriate approaches during reimbursement, also calculating nursing care hours per patient-day. The increasing shift in private and government insurer reimbursement plans from a volume to a value-based insurer underlines the need to be actively engaged in fiscal planning and health-care reform. Therefore, Chapter 10 enlightens learners on growing changes in federal and state reimbursement policies and informs on the importance of understanding and involving stakeholders in fiscal planning.

Chapter 12

            In Chapter 12, learners study the concept structure of a health care organization. The concept of organizational structure is explained with a focus on system flexibility, communication, and job satisfaction because these components affect the stability of operation within the workplace and enable employees and managers to plan their performance accordingly. Learners are exposed to several theories of organizational management, including Max Weber’s theory of bureaucracy, which influences one’s understanding of the flaws contributing to challenges in companies. Further, the chapter describes the components of informal organization structure, such as interpersonal relationships among employees and the formation of primary and secondary groups. The description enables the learners to appreciate the contribution of these components in strengthening the performance of a healthcare organization. Equally, the lessons on differentiating between centralized and decentralized decision-making help to discern the appropriate approach in decision-making. In this case, learners can effectively analyze how the undertaken position may influence the organization’s direction. Subsequently, the chapter gives insight into the common components of shared governance models, which is an imperative aspect in reaching a common understanding when confronted with conflicting decision-making centers. The learners gain knowledge on how to create a constructive culture in an organization since skillful application of authority requires being responsible and accountable. Thus, the detailed analysis of constructive undertaking of organizational decisions in this aspect is important for a healthcare professional. Lastly, the chapter educates on effective committees and committee members to appropriately select and establish committees. The ideas on the same are drawn from the need for group thinking and their importance to the organization. Learners are provided with skills to identify symptoms of poorly designed committees hence organization. The same is demonstrated using established healthcare models and the important role that stakeholders play in an organization.

Treatment Paper: Effectiveness of Treatment of Gang Member Offenders

Treatment Paper: Effectiveness of Treatment of Gang Member Offenders

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Treatment Paper: Effectiveness of Treatment of Gang Member Offenders

Gang members are groups of people associated with a particular criminal organization known to have a high rate of engaging in criminal activities, such as violent crimes, drug abuse, gun sales, and bank robbery, compared to the non-gang members. According to the recent survey by the National Gang Center (n.d.), activities of adolescent gangs have been increasing rapidly for the past decade in the United States. Their data reveals that about 30,000 gangs consist of over 800,000 members distributed in 3,000 jurisdictions across the country (National Gang Center, n.d.). A larger group of gangs is found within over 80% of the cities and 50% of the suburban counties; the same data shows that they are present in 32% of small cities and rural counties (National Gang Center, n.d.). Indeed, the data demonstrate that gang members and their related activities have been rising compared to the past five years. The problem is being felt in almost all corners of American society, thus importance of treating this population. Hence, these facts raise the need to relook into the effectiveness of measures that have been adopted in treating gang member offenders. Consequently, varied scholarly sources discuss different treatment approaches and related programs, such as cognitive transformations, increasing opportunities and deterrence, and incarceration methods, designed to address the gang-related issues.

Cognitive Transformations

Cognitive transformation approaches are considered adequate since they seek to address cognitions. These transformations are always critical since they enhance the capability of the offender to adopt new and non-criminal behaviors. The proponents of the method argue that not only the social conditions drive people to engage in criminal behaviors (Farrouki & Mapson, 2007). For example, a survey on most gang members indicates that they come from different social setups, including poor urban and rich urban settings (National Gang Center, n.d.). Contrary, a large number of people found in similar settings are not criminals or members of any gang. Therefore, the method seeks to assert psychological transformation rather than strictly confront behavioral change from a sociological perspective.

The cognitive transformation treatment assumes that offenders lack specific socio-cognitive skills that affect their reasoning and self-understanding. Day et al. (2013) argue that offenders lack critical social skills for identifying and solving their problems. Hence, the intervention is to change the perspective of addressing their social challenges, revealing the correlations between social and psychological backgrounds and prevalence in different types of crimes or engagements with violent groups. The transformative programs are delivered using small groups of participants, who are practically encouraged to face their social problems. Thus, the ultimate goal is altering their thinking in a manner that influences the law without committing a crime.

The application of cognitive transformation questions the theories that emphasize social factors as the primary cause of gang-related offenses. Such theories argue that social connections and traditions are the causes of criminal activities. However, the review of different literary works on the causes of gang-related crimes by MacKenzie (2013) establishes no explicit evidence to confirm such connections. Subsequently, this review implies that treatment methods that seek to address social issues such as employment creation, poverty eradication, and illiteracy reduction are less effective (MacKenzie, 2013). Although on the same, MacKenzie (2013) and Day et al. (2013) opine that the effectiveness of these methods can be enhanced when integrated with methods that address cognitive problems. Therefore, despite the correlation between employment, education, or marriage with a crime reduction, it does not explain or give reasons that may influence individual engagement in gang-related crimes.

Increasing Social Development Opportunities

Social programs advanced by the government and charity organizations to create a healthy social environment have had negligible impact on transforming offenders. For example, according to MacKenzie (2013), the employment creation programs advanced by the government did not significantly influence previous offenders’ return to crime, hence remain less effective. The author argues that this failure is attributed to the lack of preparation of people being given the opportunities (MacKenzie, 2013). The social development approach assumes that environmental conditions are vital in influencing the criminal behavior of individuals. They attempt to change individuals’ social environment with the hope of building a sense of criminality out of the person. Likewise, proponents of the method assert that changing individual thoughts has little influence on the success o from crime compared to their affiliation to social institution. Some scholars insist that employment and marriage bonds foreshadow decision towards disengagement from gang-related crimes. However, MacKenzie (2013) still questions whether marriage with non-criminal spouses is sufficient to stop someone from engaging in crimes. Hence, the views of most authors are that not every offender is ready to take on responsibilities unless they are cognitively prepared, thus limiting the effectiveness of the method.

Dissociating Gang Members

Dissociating from gang members is another method utilized in the treatment of gang offenders. It involves encouraging dissociation from a criminal group. However, Di Placido et al. (2006) opine that this method endangers the affected members. It is even worse, especially in a prison environment where it is difficult to avoid interacting with his former gang members physically. Furthermore, it is considered a form of betrayal when one renounces his membership in a gang. Hence, it may lead to awful consequences, including threats to one life. This is primarily because most gangs utilize fear to control their membership commitment. Although dissociated members may be placed in separate facilities, the option is rarely available in many facilities. Besides, there are notable successful cases of dissociation (Wong et al., 2012). For instance, Di Placido et al. (2006) explain that about 5% of dissociated members were successful. However, their success is attributed to the lower position of influence they held in a gang. Thus, the efficacy of dissociation is yet to be verified as an appropriate treatment of gang member offenders.

Isolation and Separation Treatment

Another treatment applied against gang members is the isolation of gangs with their members. It is used to reduce violence among different groups of gangs. However, the method has some negative consequences. For instance, it led to seizure and control of prison when applied in a Canadian prison (Wong et al., 2012). Hence, it has the potential of strengthening the control ability of the gang that is left behind. Nevertheless, there have been successes, mainly when the gang members are segregated from the gang leaders.

Suppression of Gang Activities

            The suppression of gang activities is considered a regulation treatment that targets specific gang members using methods such as a crackdown on the criminal activities of the gangs. It is also perceived the most effective treatment approached from two perspectives: targeted policing and pulling-lever strategies (Farrouki & Mapson, 2007). The targeted policing aims at implementing policies while focusing on certain parts of the social setting. Patrol units, including the specialized gang patrols, are utilized. The objective of the method is to deter arresting offenders. However, the methods are sometimes less effective since they attack the affected group itself. This strategy has the potential to increase the level of delinquency in the group by creating an “us” versus “them” social behavior (Farrouki & Mapson, 2007). Ostensibly, the culture of the street gang renders the sustained attacks by police counter-productive, which reinforces their interdependence for survival. Therefore, the attack method is interpreted by gang members as a move threatening their identity and ideologies. Therefore, as a counter to the suppression treatment, gang activity prevention could be suitable for eliminating ideological threats as a source of interdependence. Furthermore, prevention treatment does not impair the integrity of the affected gangs, thus more effective. 

            The second suppression treatment involves implementing pulling-lever methods by explicitly utilizing every available legal method to deter criminal activities of the gangs. According to Farrouki and Mapson (2007), the method has shown positive evaluation when applied in different cities. Compared to other treatment methods, pulling-lever strategies have exhibited consistent characteristics in the application. Therefore, most police departments across the cities have applied the methods, allowing for comprehensive evaluation and approval. However, the method only focuses on violent gangs, especially those using sophisticated weapons in their activities. Thus, the effectiveness of the strategies is questioned when it comes to handling other gang-related delinquencies.

Arresting and Incarceration

Arresting and incarceration treatment is an old method that has been in existence for over 20 years. It is systematically proven in its application as it has continued to yield valuable results. Equally, the methods have been subjected to intense tests to assess their effectiveness in deterring and preventing crimes. However, according to MacKenzie (2013), these methods fail to treat criminogenic aspects in the affected gang member. Similarly, Di Placido et al. (2006) explain that arrest and incarceration of offenders fail to address the leading causes of gang membership. Although probation programs implemented in prisons offers an avenue for achieving such expectations, there are notable challenges such as negative perception from other gang members. Thus, there is still a need for further intensive evaluation to ascertain the most appropriate treatment methods for handling gang member offenders.

Conclusion and Recommendations

An examination of other literature shows that most methods that are thought to be effective in treating gang member offenders are not as they seem. Most of these methods involve the application of punitive treatment measures that have become obsolete with time. Studies done on these methods were critical in underpinning these realities. Like the arguments by MacKenzie (2013), the punitive methods, including suppression and prevention of criminal activities, incarceration of offenders, and dissociation, have yielded more harm to society than they were intended. Remarkably, they have contributed to the re-emergence of intense and violent gangs. The literature claims that most of these side effects are attributed to a lack of attention to cognitive effects of gang membership and related criminal engagement. Thus, a large part of the literature proposes integrating cognitive approaches in implementing treatments for gang member offenders. Future developments also need to re-evaluate application the traditional treatment methods concerning dynamics in gang-related crimes.


Day, A., Kozar, C., & Davey, L. (2013). Treatment approaches and offending behavior programs: Some critical issues. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18(6), 630-635.

Di Placido, C., Simon, T. L., Witte, T. D., Gu, D., & Wong, S. C. P. (2006). Treatment of gang members can reduce recidivism and institutional misconduct. Law and Human Behavior, 30(1), 93-114.

Farrouki, L., & Mapson, A. V. (2007). The effectiveness of court-mandated treatment on recidivism among juvenile offenders. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 4(1-2), 79-95,

MacKenzie, D. L. (2013). First do no harm: A look at correctional policies and programs today. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 9(1), 1-17.

National Gang Center. (n.d.). National youth gang survey analysis: Gang-related offenses.

Wong, J., Gravel, J., Bouchard, M., Morselli, C., & Descormiers, K. (2012). Effectiveness of street gang control strategies: A systematic review and meta-analysis of evaluation studies.