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The Impact of Giving

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The Impact of Giving

            Individual contributions, however small, go a long way in making the society a better place. Community service, in particular, helps quite a lot in enhancing our surrounding environment. Volunteer positions are available in churches, hospitals, clinics, fire stations, schools and many other such places. Any task performed in any of these institutions contributes not only towards improving the quality of service at these organizations, but also to the society in general.

I recently volunteered at one of the local public hospitals, and the experience was as self-gratifying as it was beneficial to the community. Previously, I believed that it was the responsibility of the government and charitable organizations to take care of the society. After my vounteering experience, however, I learned that each one of us has an important role to play in the community. At the hospital, I volunteered in the record keeping department and I was assigned the duty of arranging and retrieving the files. My services were restricted to non-medical roles as I am not trained in health care. Nevertheless, I facilitated the treatment of patients, by ensuring their records were kept safely for future use.

            I believe that individuals are gifted differently to enable interdependence. We must, therefore, always strive to come to the aide of people who need assistance. Furthermore, individuals who have received help often reciprocate to others in need. The society would, thus, be a much better place if everyone took on the responsibility of minding the welfare of others. A time of strength is better spent in the service of others, who would later help in times of weakness. Moreover, one can only understand the struggle that others are facing by being in their shoes. And hence stepping out of your comfort zone to visit environments where people are in need can prove to be a very enlightening experience.

            The value of a service rendered is better than any monetary donation. Earlier I thought of money as the primary motivation for working. But engaging in community service personally gave me a different perspective on life, as I learned that there are better things in life than money. The significance of the service offered by attendants in the hospital cannot be equated to the salary they receive from the government. While the compensation received is helpful in meeting some of their home expenses, the gratification they feel in their service to the society is much higher.

            Though I entered into it for educational purposes, I am now a different person because of the experiences I have gained through community service. I would highly recommend it to anyone who has never tried it before. An opportunity to serve is a privilege that should not be taken for granted. Therefore, I still continue spare some time to visit the hospital to offer assistance whenever I can. The medical staff appreciates the help rendered, and it inspires them to give the best service to the patients. At a certain point, each one of us needs the help of others. However, the assistance granted is not deserved unless an individual has himself spent some time in the service of others. Dedicating some time to the service of others, according to me, is one of the most essential duties of life.

BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE

BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE

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The City and State

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Business Intelligence

Organizational Culture and Data-Driven Decision Making

            Organizational culture is a term that describes how a firm executes its functions and operations, which are in close association with natural behaviors and values that contribute to its unique psychological and social environment. It is important to note that a company’s culture is driven by its leadership in that the rest of the firm emulates how figureheads communicate, behave, and the values that drive their professional ambitions (Goetsch & Davis 2014). The concept also defines and represents an organization’s jointly shared internal description of self. It refers to the sum of all rituals and mores that holds the firm together through shared assumptions and beliefs that govern people’s behaviors within the organization. Barton and Court (2012, p. 79) describe organizational culture as a manifestation of civilization in the workplace that is characterized by attitudes, philosophies, practices, convictions, and mannerisms that define an enterprise both internally and externally.

            Data-driven decision-making refers to the use of empirical data and facts to inform various decision-making processes rather than basing these choices on intuition and observations alone. The permeation of science and technology in all sectors of the economy means that all industrial areas generate data and information that they should use for informative purposes (LaValle et al. 2011, p. 21). This type of decision-making is based on the notion that organizational assessments should be the result of primary data sets that illustrate their projected efficacy levels and expected outcomes. Advancements in science and technology mean that businesses have the opportunity to gather consumer data at the point of sales, and online shopping habits and preferences (Provost & Fawcett 2013). Other sources of data that users generate during their daily activities that involve interacting with technology also serve as a valuable source of information that is useful to businesses (Brynjolfsson, Hitt, & Kim 2011). Data-driven decision making improves an organization’s competitive advantage because it helps them make more accurate predictions about market trends and project consumer preferences based on facts garnered from data analytics.

Impact of Organizational Culture on the Adoption Data-Driven Decision Making

            As mentioned above, organizational culture entails the daily routines, attitudes, philosophies, beliefs, and behaviors within a firm that culminate to create a meaningful and observable way of life. Organizations seeking to establish a data-driven decision-making model must be involved in the predictive analysis of data (Donhost & Anfara 2010). This observation is because predictive data analysis comprises questions such as why, who, and what, concerning an organization’s mission and vision. Predictive data analysis also provides companies with a context that has a direct correlation to empirical data, which facilitates the establishment of an effective analytics value chain. The value chain allows for the collection and reporting of data, which provides decision-makers with valuable insights and recommendations by way of evaluations. According to Goetsch and Davis (2014, p. 56), the data analytics value chain is an iterative process that results in organizational change. The company measures the impact, and they use the outcomes to offer useful feedback pertinent to the improvement of processes. Organizations should strive to foster a data culture to ensure that they act upon insights and recommendations garnered from the value chain appropriately and promptly (Mandinach 2012, p. 74). The establishment of an organizational data culture involves practices, beliefs, and behaviors that facilitate the collection of high-quality data, sharing, hiring, and training of data analysts. These are effective communication, the establishment of an analytical, organizational structure and metric designs, and A/B testing (Brynjolfsson, Hitt, & Kim 2011). The culture plays a significant role in adopting and using data-driven decision making in an organization by setting expectations on how it should share, apply, perceive data.

            Organizational culture plays an essential responsibility in the establishment of a data culture, whereby the incorporation of a data analytics value chain is integrated into a company’s dominant customs. A data-driven decision-making organizational culture is based on information in the sense that it requires the collection of the right data using suitable means, while simultaneously minimizing collection bias and optimizing data quality (Donhost & Anfara 2010, p. 59). An organizational culture that is conducive for data-driven decision making is collaborative, inquisitive, open, and inclusive. As mentioned earlier, leadership is essential to the practical adoption of a data-driven decision making organizational culture (Davenport & Bean 2018). This form of decision-making requires visionary and progressive leadership qualities that complement the recruitment of competent data and analytical officers. The achievement of these attributes results in fact-based procedures that test existing mindsets, and do not consider the opinions or influences of the highest paid person’s views (HiPPOs) such as chief executives (Provost & Fawcett 2013, p. 55). The organizational culture ensures that a company embeds its practices in federated analytics to guarantee that all departments and personnel are involved in the data analytics value chain. The incorporation of an organization-wide data culture provides that the business equip all relevant workers with data analytics training, skills, and education (McAfee et al. 2012, p. 64). The notion also plays a vital role in information-based decision processes that allow for the efficient use of high-quality data and its useful application.

Bibliography

Barton, D & Court, D 2012, ‘Making advanced analytics work for you’, Harvard Business Review, vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 78-83.

Brynjolfsson, E, Hitt, LM & Kim, HH 2011. ‘Strength in numbers: How does data-driven decision-making affect firm performance?’ SSRN,viewed 15 August 2018, <https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1819486/>.

Davenport, TH, & Bean, R 2018, ‘Big companies are embracing analytics, but most still don’t have a data-driven culture’, Harvard Business Review, viewed 15 August 2018, <https://hbr.org/2018/02/big-companies-are-embracing-analytics-but-most-still-dont-have-a-data-driven-culture/>.

Donhost, MJ & Anfara, VA 2010, ‘Data-driven decision making’, Middle School Journal, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 56-63.

Goetsch, DL & Davis, SB 2014. Quality management for organizational excellence. Pearson, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

LaValle, S, Lesser, E, Shockley, R, Hopkins, MS & Kruschwitz, N 2011, ‘Big data, analytics and the path from insights to value’, MIT Sloan Management Review, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 21.

Mandinach, EB 2012, ‘A perfect time for data use: Using data-driven decision making to inform practice’, Educational Psychologist, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 71-85.

McAfee, A, Brynjolfsson, E, Davenport, TH, Patil, DJ & Barton, D 2012. ‘Big data: The management revolution’, Harvard Business Review, vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 60-68.

Provost, F & Fawcett, T 2013, ‘Data science and its relationship to big data and data-driven decision making’, Big Data, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 51-59.

The Concept of No Self

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The Concept of No Self

            Anatta is one of the most important concepts in Buddhism. The doctrine is among the few distinguishing factors of Buddhism from other religions such as Jainism and Hinduism. The dogma has its primary premise on the absence of self. Therefore, it represents everything that exists outside an individual. Buddha had teachings on the insufficiency of external souls in beings. In particular, he thought that the external self was just a construct of the mind. The concept of Anatta is an appealing concept that provides a person who is experiencing emotional or mental trauma with an avenue of therapeutic relief.

            According to Buddha, no soul was present in the world. The only existence that made sense to Buddha was the physical being because it was tangible and subject to changes such as aging and withering. Buddha discouraged the perception of a God a person cannot see or touch. He encouraged individuals to accept their immediate situation without attributing occurrences to external factors. Therefore, the philosophy espoused by the absence of self is that everything is temporary, and even suffering will subside with time.

            The philosophy of anatta calls for the presence of the moment. From my experience, the meditation is helpful in achieving total relaxation. Additionally, it helps me to alleviate some of the tension that I am experiencing at any moment in time. I have gone through some tough situations, but I have not utilized the mediation experience. I think it would be helpful to try the concept at times of grief. Replaying the problematic emotional scenarios is useful to accept the situation, and to enable an individual to move on from the ordeal. However, it is difficult to detach oneself from the current situation. An individual is inclined to dwell on the present, and it is hard to move on to another meditation space.                         

301 Week 3 Discussion

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301 Week 3 Discussion

British explorers used different approaches in their first interactions with the indigenous population. However, all the interactions were aimed at asserting their superiority on the basis that they were civilized. The Europeans had an inclination to use their weapons on animals around the indigenous people to instill fear and respect. The general perception was that native people were incapable of building a civilization (Cook 4). For this reason, they needed enlightenment from a superior population. Nevertheless, civilization was not necessary for the indigenous peoples, as they had survived for many centuries without external interventions. The intentions of the explorers in all cases were expansionist rather than caring for the interests of the indigenous population. The harsh reaction of the natives was anticipated. Brutal resistance should always be expected when there is a disrespectful intrusion into the internal affairs of a certain nation.

In some situations, the natives gladly welcomed the European visitors to their lands. In other cases, the indigenous people mounted a violent resistance. The Europeans responded with brutal force, and many lives were lost in these conflicts. However, the visitors did not need to meet in that manner necessarily. A peaceful retreat would have assured the natives of pure intentions by the visitors. The expansionist ideology by the European explorers had its primary objective to oppress native peoples. The Europeans looked into the culture of the native population with the intention of describing it to the outside world. They did not explore the approach of understanding the culture to facilitate collaboration (Douglas 3). The overbearing nature of the Europeans made it difficult to foster good relations with the native populations. Their interventions mainly resulted in unnecessary confrontations. Superior weapons and technologies granted the Europeans an upper hand in the struggle.

Works Cited

Cook, James. “Captain James Cook Describes His Impression of New Holland, August 1770.” Making Australian History: Perspectives on the Past Since 1788, edited by Deborah Gare and David Ritter, Thomson Learning Australia, 2008, pp. 3-4.

Douglas, James. “Lord Morton, President of the Royal Society. ‘Hints Offered to the Consideration of Captain Cooke, Mr. Bankes, Doctor Solander and Other Gentlemen Who Go Upon The Expedition On Board The Endeavour’, 1768.” Making Australian History: Perspectives on the Past Since 1788, edited by Deborah Gare and David Ritter, Thomson Learning Australia, 2008, pp. 2-3.

Critical Review

Critical Review

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Critical Review

The article, “Harnessing the Power of Narrative: Literacy and Orality in Christian Education,” by Jennifer Jagerson offers an informed viewpoint on the approaches that can be used to distribute Christian teachings to illiterate and semi-literate populaces across the globe. The premise of the argument has its derivation in oral tactics that mission movements and organizations have been implementing to satisfy their key objectives. Presently, most of the strategies that these groups apply to spread the Good News have their foundation on storytelling, which has been proven to be effective as far as understanding the subject is concerned (Jagerson, 2014). With the basis in question, the author expands on the opportunities that storytelling provides by concentrating on the implications of digital media and the way such tactics can be used to harness the delivery of Christian education in the post-modern environment.  

The article also argues that sharing the Good News should focus on the prospects that the contemporary setting offers. Rather than impose the mandate on her audience, Jagerson offers merely a plethora of innovative techniques that people can utilize, especially in areas whereby literacy is a problem. For example, Jagerson (2014) posits that approaches such as songs, ceremonies, discourses, and performances can be used to endorse oral communication with semi-illiterate or non-literate populations. Consequently, the author’s argument focuses on distinguishing between oral cultures and literature cultures with the former inclining towards tactics such as reading and the latter predisposed towards aspects such as recollection, speaking, and listening (Jagerson, 2014). The basis for the contrast is the point of definition and differentiating the dimensions that can be applied to develop effective communicators. In this respect, mission organizations and stakeholders can design differentiated strategies that appeal to the respective groups by musing on their unique needs.

The methodology that the author applies in the article is a cross-cultural qualitative review of existing literature. Since the argument is purely theoretical, Jagerson relies on peer-reviewed journals and scholarly publications to establish oral communication as the best alternative approach for enhancing Christian education among illiterate people. The article looks at the distinguished groups to provide a fair and unbiased argument on the tactics that apply to oral and literature groups. Even though she bases her claim on the former, Jagerson’s conjectures incline towards the factors that establish verbal storytelling as a productive way of spreading the Gospel. For instance, using a study that was conducted in 2013, the author establishes that the application of the respective strategy among students in a seminary based in North America was 47.5 percent more successful contrary to the implementation of literate approaches (Jagerson, 2014). The dependence on past literature on the advantage of oral communication largely informs the article’s methodology.

The impartiality applied in the article enhances Jagerson’s thesis. While the composition is dedicated to supporting oral communication as a useful educational strategy, the article also focuses considerably on literate interactive tactics. The incorporation of an unbiased stance usually provides research studies and essays with reliability and enhances the author’s credibility as far as the argument is concerned (Maxwell, 2016). In this respect, Jagerson’s inclination towards both measures facilitates the article’s position as appropriate literature for further investigation. The article also integrates statistical information as well as real-life examples, which enhance its verifiability and persuasiveness to the target audience. With these elements, the author was able to communicate her thesis and establish her position on the use of oral communication strategies for Christian education, especially in illiterate contexts. Nonetheless, Jagerson’s argument may have been enhanced by the performance of an actual investigate study.

References

Jagerson, Jennifer. (2014). Harnessing the power of narrative: Literacy and orality in Christian education. Christian Education Journal: Research on Educational Ministry, 11(2), 259-275.

Maxwell, J. A. (2016). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Topic 8: Global Governance

Topic 8: Global Governance

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Topic 8: Global Governance

The concept of global governance accentuates collaboration among international or transnational state actors towards the resolution of issues that affect numerous regions or nations. The rationale for the association has its foundation on the implications that globalization has imposed, particularly in development. Over the years, the performance of transnational institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the United Nations has received much criticism due to the increasing inequality between developed and developing countries. Regulations established by these agencies on trade seem to benefit wealthy nations over the latter group. For example, laws applied by the World Trade Organization have implemented constraints on trade that seem to favor developed countries while simultaneously attacking the developing states’ sovereignty. Similar concerns have raised debates centered on the management of issues that affect multiple regions. The discourse focuses on the similar and divergent ideas expressed by experts in the subject, specifically Joseph E. Stiglitz and Dani Rodrik, regarding the democratization of global governance. Stiglitz and Rodrik concur that there is a lack of democratic consensus among transnational actors, but they disagree on the implementation of a suitable global governance framework.

One of the convergences regarding the democratization of global governance in Stiglitz and Rodrik’s arguments involves the undemocratic disposition of transnational actors. The significance of the concept has its basis in the relationships that globalization has necessitated between countries and the evolution of global-wide problems with widespread implications on multiple regions (Stone, 2008). As an outcome, countries have resorted to the development and ratification of international oversight institutions such as the United Nations (UN), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Bank (Dixit, 2010). However, due to the hierarchical nature of these organizations, they base their decisions regarding the welfare of countries on policies that unfavorably benefit some members over others. Stiglitz (2013) argues that international institutions approach global-scale issues with a significant level of undemocratic governance due to the divergences between political and economic globalization. Rather than facilitate democracy, transnational actors implore methods that reinforce economic advantages. For instance, the WTO faces much criticism for its bias regarding the governance of international trade due to the gains that it offers to developed member states at the cost of developing nations. 

Rodrik echoes the same thought in his understanding of the subject. Regarding the resolution of multiple regional problems, the author argues that global organizations are considerably incapable of resolving such issues effectively. The rationale for this claim is that global governance is an incomplete mechanism that can gain its strength only by a careful structure of economic globalization (Rodrik, 2012). Enhancing domestic economic and trade policies is bound to disrupt the spillover effects generated from the activities of other countries. While the idea may seem protectionist, especially for developing countries, it establishes a sturdy style of globalization. Indeed, Stiglitz and Rodrik recognize the considerable gaps between political and economic liberalization in respect to the policies and rules that transnational institutions apply. Their similarities on the democratization of global governance are also evident by the way they address the outcomes and procedures derived from democratic incapacities as far as the discussed actors are concerned (James & Soguk, 2017). Both admit that the discrepancies in policies and rules implemented by international institutions stem from the lack of systems capable of incorporating checks and balances, accountability, and transparency.

Despite these junctions in thought, Stiglitz and Rodrik seem to differ on the implementation of democratized global governance. On the one hand, Stiglitz argues that international economies should use the force of globalization as a way to enhance economic growth. Countries are bound to benefit from transnational institutions if they can develop national institutions. He also asserts that the administration of forces of globalization, such as the environment, international trade, and foreign debt can enhance the democratization of governance (Stiglitz, 2013). While Rodrik agrees that the undemocratic nature of transnational actors is the core issue, he diverges from Stiglitz’s argument by advocating for locally protectionist policies and the involvement of participatory regimes in the resolution of problems derived from globalization such as corruption. He claims that democratic state actors are the only countries that can benefit since they are capable of supplying considerable rates of growth and stability (Rodrik, 2012). Enhancing the involvement of domestic countries in economic matters may encourage the application of democratic components within global governance. 

To this end, Joseph E. Stiglitz and Dani Rodrik seem to agree on the undemocratic nature of global governance. Both academics argue that current transnational institutions employ measures and tactics that favor developed countries at the cost of the developing states’ welfare. For them, while globalization is a force with widespread implications for economic health, global agencies can manage and administer it effectively by applying democratic components that accentuate accountability, transparency, and balance. Stiglitz and Rodrik also correlate on the gap between economic and political globalization, which seems instrumental in the current deficiencies that international institutions exhibit as far as governance is concerned. Accordingly, the level of evolution between both aspects is incoherent with the former being used as a measure to benefit some countries and the latter being ignored. The illustration explains why organizations such as the WTO can implement economic policies that openly discriminate against developing member states financially. Nonetheless, the only point of divergence between the respective scholars involves the measures that are applicable to integrate democratized global governance.

References

Dixit, A. K. (2010). Lawlessness and economics: Alternative modes of governance. Princeton University Press, NJ.

James, P., & Soguk, N. (2017). Globalization and politics, vol. 1: Global, political, and legal governance. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.

Rodrik, D. (2012). One economics, many recipes: Globalization, institutions, and economic growth. Princeton University Press, NJ.

Stiglitz, J. E. (2013). Globalization and its discontents. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

Stone, D. (2008). Global public policy: Transnational policy communities and their networks. Policy Studies Journal, 36(1), 19-38. 

Social Psychology: Concepts of Self

Social Psychology: Concepts of Self

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Social Psychology: Concepts of Self

I used to compare myself to other people, including close friends and relatives. My constant engagement in this habit forced me to question my skills and personality. Personally, I was never confident in academics or social life because I always felt inadequate in these areas. However, there was opportunity for me to speak on behalf of other children at the synagogue. The event was significant due to the impact that it could potentially bring upon a person’s position and standing within their community. However, while the organizers gave me the first chance, I declined because I felt that I was not qualified and that other children were much better. This lack of confidence eventually changed as I became older, and it has since become more natural for me to participate in social activities like these.

 Self-concept constitutes the ideas and perceptions that people have regarding themselves. This model of self can change from childhood to adulthood. The traits and characteristics that people used to define themselves when they were younger can change as they become older. My self-concept establishes the leadership style that I will most likely use. Having a clear idea of my identity and my self-concept is essential in choosing the attitude I should have in everything I do.

Joining college was a new and excellent learning experience for me. In college, I met many different people, but it took me a while to form any meaningful friendships. First, I thought that my roommate was aloof and rude. My own perception made me avoid her. It was only later that I learned that she was a moral and reserved person. In other words, I had formed an inaccurate observation of her. Self-perception comprises our understanding of others. It can include trying to read nonverbal cues such as facial expressions and body posture. Moreover, individual experiences can also influence it. One can seek to understand people’s motives for their behavior and traits. Further, social perception may have its flaws as it depends on the information that people have, which might be insufficient to form accurate impressions (Napier & Gershenfeld, 2004). Nevertheless, self-perception is vital in leadership as the measures that leaders use to create the ideas of others will determine how well or how poorly they get along with their subordinates. Leaders need to understand the different aspects of their followers, hence the need to form correct self-perception. College is an excellent learning ground for improving one’s social skills.

When I was young, I pretended to like baseball as I thought that this was the only way I could gain acceptance. As I was not good at forming friendships, I had to struggle. Thus, I assumed that conforming to the norm was the only way I could gain the approval of others. Most of the children in the neighborhood liked going to the park and playing, while others preferred dancing. So, I decided to play even though I did not like the game. Social influence is strong, and it can lead to changes in behavior. A person can thus cause another to modify his or her behavior either intentionally or unintentionally (Napier & Gershenfeld, 2004). There are three different approaches to behavioral modification: conformity, obedience, and compliance. Personally, I decided to conform; thus I changed my behavior to be like the others.

In summary, I have learned from my experiences that developing a solid self-concept is essential for leadership as it is a necessary tool for interpreting other people’s behavior. In my younger years, I learned the value of conformity and applied it in order to foster good relationships with the other children in my neighborhood. In college, I learned that I should be more objective when it comes to perception. Thus, understanding self-concept is imperative as a leader, especially in trying to understand subordinate behavior.

Reference

Napier, R. W., & Gershenfeld, M. K. (2004). Groups: theory and experience (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

The Sickle Cell Trait and Disease

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The Sickle Cell Trait and Disease

The sickle cell trait is a blood impairment that affects red blood cells within the body. The condition involves a situation where a person possesses a single abnormal allele of the hemoglobin beta gene, but does not display any severe symptoms of sickle cell disease. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that transfers oxygen all over the body (Penman et al. 21242). Individuals that inherit a particular sickle cell gene are capable of passing the trait to their offspring (Serjeant 9). The sickle cell trait is usually passed down from parent to child for many generations. In case both parents possess sickle cell traits, their biological offspring have a 50 percent probability of acquiring the disease once they inherit the sickle cell gene. This feature is likely to translate to a 25 percent chance of inheriting sickle cell disease. Alternately, once a single progenitor is diagnosed with the respective attribute, the offspring do not have any chance of acquiring the illness. Different sickle cell diseases are distributed in various ways. For instance, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis (CF), and Tay-Sachs disease are all inherited as autosomal recessive conditions.

There are different forms of the sickle cell disease. The most common type is Sickle Cell Anemia (SS) that occurs when an offspring inherits a single beta globin gene from each parent. Most of the population with SS is considered to be from the Indian and African descent. Sickle Hemoglobin C Disease (SC) is a common sickle cell disease that occurs when an offspring possesses distinct substitution of hemoglobin C and hemoglobin S produced by beta globin genes. This is similar to Sickle Beta Thalassemia (SB) disease (Maitra et al. 4). However, people experiencing SC disease possess a higher blood count level that limits the nature of their symptoms. People with Sickle Hemoglobin D Disease are common in people from Asian and Latin American descent, and it is caused by varied substitution of the beta gene.

            One of the proteins essential for the transport of oxygen through the body is the beta globin protein. It is a subunit of hemoglobin that is altered in the onset of sickle cell trait and disease. Any defect in the beta chain of hemoglobin has been associated with sickle cell traits. Hemoglobin consists of three classifications. They include hemoglobin A, A2, and F. Two alpha and beta chains make up hemoglobin A, two alpha and delta chains form hemoglobin A2, and two alpha and gamma chains make up hemoglobin F (Penman et al. 21242). Mutation of the sickle cell trait appears in the hemoglobin-Beta (HBB) gene on chromosome 11 (11p15.5). Proteins within this region bundle together because of a deprivation of oxygen saturation leading to changes in the performance and shape of red blood cells.

            Changes in the hemoglobin-Beta gene are naturally selected based on the scope of the carriers. A combination between the inherited sickle cell gene and a normal gene has been considered to be a potential cause of the individual trait. While most people possess two common hemoglobin genes, others possess one standard gene and one sickle cell gene. The genes consist of chromosomal cells acquired from the egg and the sperm of the parents. A combination of different genes determines the nature of specific traits such as height, hair color, and weight. The sickle cell phenotype is comprised of three distinct dominances that can be characterized depending on their traits (Bürger and Bagheri 498). Practitioners who have carried out genome inspection have recognized that all sickle cell traits are attributable to genetic determinants that can be found in a single chromosome (Serjeant 9). The hemoglobin-Beta gene has been associated with other diseases caused by different gene mutation other than the polymerization of hemoglobin S.

            The hemoglobin-Beta gene encodes beta-globin, which is essential in producing standard hemoglobin. Persons who have the sickle cell trait will typically receive a standard allele trait and another atypical allele trait, consequently resulting in the hemoglobin genotype AS. Beta globin is one of the most common proteins that make up hemoglobin in adults. The protein is encoded within the human chromosome 11, where widespread gene mutation occurs. Sickle hemoglobin (HbS) is one of the many beta globin variants produced through point mutation (Penman et al. 21242). The changes experienced by the protein accelerate the acquisition of the sickle cell trait through a particular process. During the process of mutation, the classification of three nucleotides is replaced by other codons, leading to the replacement of glutamic acid with valine at the sixth spot (Shih et al. 1675). A hydrophobic spot is subsequently adjoined to the hemoglobin molecule’s beta chain, and the process results in clumping. Clumping of the sickle hemoglobin molecules affects the red blood cells and distribution of oxygen across the body. Subclinical tissue infarction caused by impediments of inflexible erythrocytes may affect aggregate body parts, leading to renal medullary carcinoma and kidney disease (Mariño 150). This outcome is attributed to the polymerization of deoxy-hemoglobin S (6) caused by extreme hypoxemia and hyperthermia in the vasa recta arterial blood of the renal medulla.

            It is possible to evaluate the effect and level of mutation from the DNA level to the level of the entire organism in its normal state. People with sickle cell traits do not possess the disease, but rather carry a gene that is likely to interfere with the DNA and proteins. A typical protein molecule and gene is made up of DNA and RNA structures that prevent clumping. However, mutant protein and DNA molecules become sickle-shaped, interrupting the flow of blood (Maciaszek and Lykotrafitis 659). Any substitution of the sixth amino acid that is found in the beta-globin will result in an eventual malformation of the entire red blood cell. This form of mutation is known as point mutation or substitution, which involves the changing, insertion, or deletion of a single nucleotide base from a chain of DNA or RNA (Rees, Williams, and Gladwin 2018). This condition is challenging for the person with the sickle cell allele, especially during intense activities, as it may often cause them to experience fatigue.

            Sickle cell trait possesses minimal distinct symptoms in conjunction with rare medical problems. However, in some extreme cases, patients may experience blood in their urine, due to combined mutation with other bodily factors. Similarly, some patients may develop symptoms similar to those of sickle cell disease. For instance, some patients may experience extreme pressure in the atmosphere, similar to that experienced during exercise (Key and Derebail 418). Additionally, patients may experience reduced oxygen levels at high altitudes while performing arduous physical movements. Some may suffer from dehydration, which is common among athletes. Diagnosis of the trait is carried out through a simple blood test, mostly after inception. Practitioners often take a tissue sample from the placenta or the amniotic fluid to determine the presence of a sickle cell trait. Older adults and children can access blood tests in hospitals and medical centers. Sickle cell trait does not need any treatment, but may warrant the need for interventions, particularly among athletes.

            The sickle cell allele affects certain populaces considerably. Approximately one in thirteen African Americans are born with the trait. Over 300 million people across the globe possess the sickle cell trait (Tsaras et al. 507). Additionally, people with ancestors from South Asia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean are particularly susceptible to the trait. Four percent of the Central and South American population possess the attribute with a prevalence of one in 2000. Sickle Hemoglobin C Disease (SC) and Sickle Hemoglobin O Disease primarily affects people from West African, Mediterranean, and Middle Eastern descents. Furthermore, people of Hispanic, South Asian, and Southern European descent are at especially high risk. Most of the affected inherited the blood disorder, leading to the production of abnormal hemoglobin. However, about 15 percent of children born with sickle cell disease are likely to die at the age of 20. On the other hand, the median life expectancy for people with the illness is 40 years of age for women and men, even though the latter is more exposed to the ailment at an early age (Maitra et al. 3). Sickle cell trait and disease are ailments that affect people’s health and wellbeing in numerous ways.

Works Cited

Bürger, Reinhard, and Homayoun C. Bagheri. “Dominance and Its Evolution.” Encyclopedia of Ecology, 2008, pp. 945-952.

Key, Nigel S., and Vimal K. Derebail. “Sickle-Cell Trait: Novel Clinical Significance.” ASH Education Program Book, vol. 2010, no. 1, 2010, pp. 418-422.

Maciaszek, Jamie L., and George Lykotrafitis. “Sickle Cell Trait Human Erythrocytes are Significantly Stiffer than Normal.” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 44, no. 4, 2011, pp. 657-661.

Maitra, Poulami, et al. “Risk Factors for Mortality in Adult Patients with Sickle Cell Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Studies in North America and Europe.” Haematologica, 2017, pp. 1-42. doi:10.3324/haematol.2016.153791.

Mariño, Enríquez, et al. “ALK Rearrangement in Sickle Cell Trait-Associated Renal Medullary Carcinoma.” Genes, Chromosomes, and Cancer, vol. 50, no. 3, 2011, pp. 146-153.

Penman, Bridget S. et al. “Epistatic Interactions between Genetic Disorders of Hemoglobin Can Explain why the Sickle-Cell Gene is Uncommon in The Mediterranean.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences vol. 106, no. 50, 2009, pp. 21242-21246.

Rees, David C., Thomas N. Williams, and Mark T. Gladwin. “Sickle-Cell Disease.” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9757, 2010, pp. 2018-2031.

Serjeant, Graham R. “The Natural History of Sickle Cell Disease.” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 2013, pp. 1-12.

Shih, Hung-Chang et al. “Rapid Identification of HBB Gene Mutations by High-Resolution Melting Analysis.” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 42, no. 16-17, 2009, pp. 1667-1676.

Tsaras, Geoffrey et al. “Complications Associated with Sickle Cell Trait: A Brief Narrative Review.” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 122, no. 6, 2009, pp. 507-512.

SOCW 2016 FINAL

SOCW 2016 FINAL

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

SOCW 2061 Final

Donna’s Story From a Problem-Solving Perspective

            A problem-solving perspective in social work is a practice model that entails focusing on gaining sufficient understanding of the challenges, brainstorming all possible solutions, and offering these options to a client or patient for them to implement a chosen solution. “Donna’s Story” is the title of a Canadian documentary that revolves around the life of Donna Gamble, a Native American woman from the Cree tribe, who struggles to overcome her life of prostitution and drug addiction. Donna is portrayed as a strong, determined, and resourceful woman, who struggles to overcome numerous challenges in her life and society to become an influential Aboriginal counselor of the youths and adults battling to overcome drug addiction and abuse. A problem-solving perspective on Donna’s life is represented by her critical look at her experiences and that of her family and society.

Abusive Past and Donna’s Transformation

            An assessment summary of Donna’s life should be done in consideration of her past, present, and future goals that she would wish to achieve. In the documentary, Donna reports that she was sexually abused and molested by her uncles when she was a little girl. The abuses that Donna went through as a child can be attributed to having made a significant contribution to her deviant behavior as a teen and young adult. It is recommended that Donna enrolls in social work classes that are uniquely tailored to tackle drug abuse and addiction-related counseling skills to further her efforts to become an effective Aboriginal counselor. As a social activist working with Donna, I would recommend that she formulate tangible goals for her personal and professional life as a social worker. These goals would entail ensuring that her children do not manifest deviant behavior, in addition to providing that she rehabilitates some prostitutes and drug addicts and moves them from the streets.

Analysis of Donna’s Life from a Strength-Based Approach

            Donna exhibits exemplary resilience to have her life not determined by her past, but by her present and future aspirations. A strength-based approach in social work is a perspective used by welfare workers to focus on people’s strengths, potential, and abilities instead of paying attention to their deficits and problems. Donna represents an extraordinarily resilient and determined individual committed to ensuring that she continues learning, growing, and changing to become a better person (Hepworth, Rooney, Rooney, & Strom-Gottfried, 2016). Her situation from a strengths-based perspective portrays a woman with the considerable capacity to inspire people especially those who have gone through similar life experiences.

A Resilient Donna Fights Back to Become a Role Model

Donna is illustrated as a strong individual with aspirations to change her life and the lives of those afflicted by drug addiction and substance abuse. An essential aspect of the strength-based approach is the focus on an individual’s self-determination and commitment to change. Donna is portrayed as a self-determined individual committed to self-empowerment. She seeks to see these aspects manifested in individuals facing drug abuse and addiction challenges in their lives. It is important to note that the strength-based approach places emphasis on the establishment of enabling social niches that do not provide opportunities for stigmatization and discrimination (Bourdieu & Nice, 2007). Donna was cognizant of the fact that as a former drug addict and prostitute, she would face social stigma and prejudice from members of the society. Donna turns to her mother and daughters for social and moral support, which is an example of one of the tenets of a strength-based approach. The best method or model for working with Donna is enabling social niches to empower individuals using locally available and accessible resources.

 Evidence of Voluntary and Non-Voluntary Professional Relationships

            A voluntary relationship in social work refers to the situation where community workers are required to work with individuals who willingly seek their services. On the other hand, involuntary professional relationships entail circumstances where welfare workers are required to work with individuals who have been ordered by the courts to attend sessions with them. According to Healy (2014), a majority of social workers are engaged with clients who have been compelled by courts, spouses, partners, and supervisors, or the threat of punishment. Greene (2017) states that unfortunately, a majority of social work approaches and practice models are designed around the notion that individuals in need of social work services do so voluntarily. It is important to note that a majority of such clients harbor notions of being unwanted, mistrust other people, and feel generally unsafe in their immediate surroundings. Social workers should possess the necessary skills, competencies, and knowledge to promote the establishment of helping relationships between them and their clients (Howe, 2017).

The Ideal Social Worker

Donna attributes her decision to change after she received a hug from a total stranger on the streets when she was a prostitute. Regardless of the relationship type that exists between welfare workers and their clients, it is the professional responsibility and duty of the former to ensure that the latter receives appropriate counseling and care (Moser, 2012). Social workers should assist their clients in ways that help them live their lives to the highest possible quality. Social care involves helping people to live comfortably, maintaining their independence, and leading more meaningful and fuller lives. According to Greene (2017), social control from a sociological perspective entails the provision of welfare services based on defined social values and behavioral norms.

The Purpose of Child Welfare Service

Child welfare refers to the services designed to ensure the safety of children by monitoring the family’s ability to support and care for them successfully. All governments have the responsibility to support and coordinate the provision of services aimed at preventing the neglect and abuse of children (Fay, 2014).  Various services to ensure the well-being of young ones are designed to help the families that require assistance to care and protect their children (Howe, 2017). Child welfare services are responsible for arranging for children to live with their relatives or foster families in situations where the parents cannot assure their safety and wellbeing. Donna’s firstborn child was taken by child welfare services and put up for adoption, as mentioned earlier because she was considered incapable of assuring the child’s safety and wellbeing. She reports that her new goal in life is to end the cycle of generational domestic violence, drug abuse and addiction that afflicted her family to ensure that her children are not exposed to similar risks she encountered when she was young.

A Dysfunctional Family and Unattended Childhood

Timely intervention of child welfare services could have helped Donna escape sexual abuse and molestation by her uncles in her childhood (Moser, 2012). Consequently, Donna could not have turned to drugs and prostitution as a coping mechanism to deal with the trauma of growing up in a dysfunctional family. Donna states that she held strong resentment against her mother for leaving her and her siblings unattended for weeks. The existence of effective child welfare services could have helped Donna and her siblings move from the harmful environment into a more favorable one. The absence of an effective child welfare measure also facilitated the sexual abuse and molestation Donna suffered as a child.  

 Structural Argument of Donna’s Situation

The generational cycle of domestic violence, drug abuse, and addiction was the principal causative agents of Donna’s past and present experiences in life. Donna reports that her uncles used to give her money after sexually molesting her, which she would then use to buy eateries from the store; this was her coping with mechanism against the trauma. Donna’s mother says that she was also sexually abused, and upon reporting it to her mother, she was accused of asking for it, which made her seek alternatives to adjust with the predicament.(Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath, 2008). When candy and other sweet confectionaries failed to console Donna, she resorted to other more “effective” coping mechanisms that were readily available to a 15-year-old girl on the streets, and that is how she started using drugs, became an addict, and began working as a prostitute to earn a living on the streets.

Donna Believes in Her Strength

Donna lived in a society that was conditioned to accept aboriginals as naturally predisposed to drug use and substance abuse, a belief that acerbated her situation (Payne, 2015). Donna believes that women have much potential to solve the issues affecting them directly; all they need is empowerment. She  finally qualified as a counselor for aboriginals, recovering drug addicts, and prostitutes seeking to leave the streets. Donna is driven by feminist philosophies in her quest to change lives, especially for recovering drug addicts and prostitutes, as illustrated by her incessant commitment to even visiting inmates in federal penitentiaries. Donna perceptions about her situation did not act as an inhibitor towards her desire to turn around her life. The use of failures and weaknesses as a source of inspiration and learning experience is the main emphasis of rehabilitative social work.  

 Personal Reflection on Donna’s Life

Donna’s story is extremely insightful for the various risk factors that aboriginals face as a community and the reasons behind what is considered as endemic drug abuse and addiction problem. Donna demonstrated exceptional resilience and determination that enabled her to overcome insurmountable challenges in her life to become an integral member of her society, committed to helping people deal with similar problems she had encountered in her life. Donna’s story provides social workers with useful insights into the various approaches that can be effective in various settings. For example, enabling social niches was extremely effective in Donna’s situation, which helped access locally available resources to help her cope with the challenges she encountered in her path to recovery. Self-determination is demonstrated to be an integral component of changing one’s life, especially when faced with the challenge of negative social labeling, discrimination, and stigmatization.

No Change is Possible Without the Will

Donna’s situation illustrates that a strong will to endure and survive adversity is as important as the approaches used by welfare workers to help individuals recover from various problems that they encounter in life. Changing one’s life for the better is demonstrated to be a holistic process whereby an individual seeks to support not only from self, but also from the immediate family, friends, community, and society in general. Support systems are demonstrated to be extremely vital in recovery from various socially unacceptable behaviors and practices. Donna’s story provides the viewer with a unique perspective on some social challenges that isolated populations face while tackling issues that might seem inconsequential, but they impact people’s lives adversely. As a social worker, Donna’s Story is inspirational and motivational because it exhibits a case that can be emulated in designing novel practice approaches.  

References

Bourdieu, P., & Nice, R. (2007). Outline of a theory of practice (vol. 16). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Fay, B. (2014). Social theory and political practice (RLE Social Theory). New York, NY: Routledge.

Gitterman, A., & Germain, C. B. (2008). The life model of social work practice: Advances in theory and practice. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (Eds.). (2008). Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Greene, R. R. (2017). Human Behavior Theory and Professional Social Work Practice. In Human Behavior Theory and Social Work Practice (pp. 31-62). New York, NY: Routledge.

Healy, K. (2014). Social work theories in context: Creating frameworks for practice. New York, NY: Macmillan International Higher Education.

Howe, D. (2017). An introduction to social work theory. New York, NY: Routledge.

Hepworth, D. H., Rooney, R. H., Rooney, G. D., & Strom-Gottfried, K. (2016). Empowerment series: Direct social work practice: Theory and skills. Ontario, Canada: Nelson Education.

Moser, C. O. (2012). Gender planning and development: Theory, practice and training. New York, NY: Routledge.

Payne, M. (2015). Modern social work theory. Oxford, MA: Oxford University Press.

Information Systems Supply Inventory and Supplier Relations

Information Systems Supply Inventory and Supplier Relations

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Information Systems Supply Inventory and Supplier Relations

Supply Inventory

            The contemporary business scene has introduced people to the concept of electronic commerce and technology. Most organizations have incorporated technological facets into their operations owing to derived advantages such as flexible payments, practical purchases, and the management of clients, suppliers, and inventory. The healthcare sector is one of the areas that have adopted information technology. The segment uses technology to measure the supply chain costs and to evaluate whether the organization is making any advancement. Therefore, today’s healthcare leaders need to have a better understanding of expenses associated with the distribution platform through the integration and automation of the supply chain. Institutions need to measure strategic supply chain costs over specific periods with an objective of increasing the level of accountability among institutions. While it increases accountability in handling the charges, information technology is also essential in enabling relationships between suppliers and the organization. Information systems are critical in supporting supply inventory and supplier relations within the healthcare sector.

            Supply inventory is a stock of the available goods required to run the hospital. Hospitals deal with countless forms of merchandise that include surgical equipment, sanitary equipment, and company assets (Bhakoo, Singh, & Sohal, 2012). These facilities spend a significant part of their current assets and working capital to invest in inventory. Therefore, a strategic approach is required if the hospital is to ensure that it does not incur a loss. Supplier inventory control and management may be active through the implementation of information technology components. For instance, institutions have used Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the financial, inventory, and other pertinent systems through access from a single database (Bhakoo et al., 2012). The process will ensure that the stock is availed in sufficient quantity, minimizing the investment. It is also possible to ascertain quality through improving patient safety.

            Hospitals have enhanced supply chain management that employs the economic order quantity technique to manage their inventory. The pharmacy section is among the areas that handle a variety of suppliers as well as merchandise. For instance, a hospital pharmacy may possess more than 5,000 different items from intravenous catheters to topical lotions. Such products tend to vary based on cost, volume, weight, and storage requirements making it difficult to track and account for manually. Expenses associated with pharmacy inventory management contribute primarily to the total operating charges (Bhakoo et al., 2012). Consequently, economic order quantity ensures that the institution calculates the essential components used in the pharmacy providing an estimate of the most common and utilized equipment that the department should restock. The sole aim of the respective measure is to take advantage of the value and decrease the expenses of the commodities. The approach ascertains a balance between inventory carrying cost and procurement cost.

            ABC analysis, also known as Selective Inventory Control, is an inventory management technique that categorizes stock based on the control aspect. It incorporates three dimensions such as “A” to imply large investment items, “B” to imply less firmly controlled items and “C” to imply reduced investment with a large number of items. An organization incorporates ABC analysis into information technology systems to control the amount of supplier inventory within its constituent institutions. For instance, the Pharmacy Store of Veterinary Hospital in Yogyakarta, Indonesia uses ABC analysis to account for its stock within its offices (Fitriana, Satria, & Setiawan, 2018). The institution understands that inventories are not of equal value warranting the need for grouping. FSN Analysis is an inventory management system used within hospitals to classify items based on the usage frequency. The measure categorizes the products using fast moving, slow moving, and non-moving dimensions. The categorization ensures the integration of consistency in upstream and downstream supplier exchanges and client demands.

            Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is among the information technology systems that have been employed in various supplier and health institutions to track their goods and assets. This form of technology uses radio waves to achieve communication between a tag and a reading device. The tag often consists of a microchip that is attached to an antenna and capable of reading information and writing data. Hospitals use RFID technology to track their assets such as machinery used for necessary procedures. For instance, the North York General Hospital in Toronto was one of the institutions to launch restocking medication trays using RFID technology (Rolko & Chan, 2015). The hospital integrated various information systems, notably the Intelliguard Kit and Tray Management System, which improved accuracy and restocking speed. In other cases, tags possessing RFID technology often highlight the shape, size, color, and manufacturing detail of any equipment used within the hospital. Institutions use these features because they own unique identification codes, and can tag numerous products simultaneously.

            Supply inventory has been tracked using barcodes and scanners. The methods have been applied significantly in various areas because of their feasibility and efficiency during the traditional epoch. The codes exist in machine language and institutions can use them to track goods at different levels within the supply chain. These elements usually possess a laser, linear imager, and 2D area imagers based on the scanned products. Shipped products such as pharmaceutical drugs have stacked barcodes that suppliers issue based on the hospital patient needs. For instance, St. Patrick Hospital in Lake Charles, Louisiana uses barcodes to assess the distribution of medication among patients (Dubin, 2010). Some barcodes possess wireless connectivity components while others can work without tethers to a power station.

Supplier Relations

            An organization creates and maintains its supply relations in several ways. Information technology has provided an opportunity where suppliers and hospitals can build healthy, long-lasting, and beneficial relationships that would accelerate the efficiency of the supply chain. Among the information technology elements that have improved relations is the Electronic Data Interchange technology (EDI). Healthcare EDI provides an opportunity where electronic data trade-off may occur between the institution, care providers, patients, and suppliers. The framework ensures that secure and effective data processing is achieved in case of claims made by any party. Supply chain partners often use EDI technology to carry out stock transactions for the effective running of the hospital. For instance, St James’s Hospital (SJH) in Dublin has extensively used EDI to actualize its proof-of-concept (POC) project with suppliers (Grimson et al., 1998). The objective of the system is to eliminate the conventional paper system and accommodate direct links between financial and clinical operations within the hospital.

            EDI improves supplier relations by ensuring that suppliers can access useful institutional needs on the computer or database systems to enhance transaction flow. Transactions carried out through EDI technology strengthen claims and benefits processes in case of any inconsistency as it acts as a point of reference for suppliers. Institutions augment supplier relations through guaranteeing that they deal with only those organizations that meet the requirements set by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). Standardization improves the accuracy and efficiency of health information, which is essential in propelling hospital activities (Subramani, 2004). EDI technology is considered secure and cost-effective as information is handled digitally, eliminating the need for any intermediaries. Additionally, it reduces the level of error experienced in manual systems improving the scope and scale of productivity.

            An organization builds supplier relations through open and transparent communication. Communication ensures the smooth flow of information between the hospitals and the suppliers. Among the information systems that enable interaction includes web services. Web services consist of application interfaces that are accessible through internet standard protocols. More often, the web services provide Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), Universal Description, and Web Services Description Language (WSDL). For instance, the Cleveland Clinic uses Amazon Web Services (AWS) to trace products that they provide to consumers online. Initially, supplier relationships were created through unique methods that warranted the need for partners to install similar software under the same platforms to communicate and share information (Subramani, 2004). However, an extendable markup language that is availed through web services has allowed hospitals and suppliers to integrate software through the web, further reducing the arduous approach of communication. Such services enable the organizations to transfer intellectual and data capital to supplement their robust supply chains.

            The interoperability of web services in the supply chain process supports business-to-supplier models. The method offers an understanding of the approaches that organizations and suppliers make to communicate and integrate their products. For instance, the pharmaceutical department within the hospital provides medication of different kinds to patients. The hospital needs to manage stock levels within the warehouse to accomplish the issuance of drugs. In this case, the supplier receives a notification once a particular product is out of stock after communication between the pharmacy and the relevant hospital departments (Subramani, 2004). The framework is a typical business-to-business model that is applicable in cases where medication stock is below the appropriate threshold. In such cases, the supplier needs to issue a production run in collaboration with the pharmacy to generate an inventory of the finished goods. Through the web services, the flow of communication can be consistent, and the organization can maintain a high standard of accuracy.

            Information systems promote supplier relationships by ensuring that they make accurate and informed decisions regarding their supply chain. Hospitals need to make informed decisions during the purchase of pharmaceutical and hospital-based goods to deliver quality services to patients. Decision support systems promote the pursuit of appropriate choices that are based on acquired information. Institutions rely on available data and business models regarding goods and services to make rational decisions. For instance, hospitals need to assess and evaluate the products that they procure based on factors such as cost, quality, and availability. Such a decision is often made by determining information in the systems and comparing the suppliers. The measure includes examining the sales figures, projected figures, and current information assets of suppliers (Subramani, 2004). The relationship between suppliers and the hospital is also intensified through electronic commerce. It entails electronic data interchange, image processing, and shared databases regarding the interaction between organizations. Such a system increases relationships between suppliers by providing a background of different clients and additional information such as geographical location. An organization can enhance both supply inventory and supply relations through the application of information systems. However, leaders need to recognize the various forms and their uses to create a feasible and effective supply chain.

References

Bhakoo, V., Singh, P., & Sohal, A. (2012). Collaborative management of inventory in Australian hospital supply chains: Practices and issues. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal17(2), 217-230.

Dubin, C. H. (2010). Bar-code scanning at four health care facilities in the US. Pharmacy and Therapeutics35(4), 212.

Fitriana, I., Satria, R. G. D., & Setiawan, D. C. B. (2018). Medicine inventory management by ABC-VED Analysis in the Pharmacy Store of Veterinary Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 13, 85-90.

Grimson, J., Grimson, W., Berry, D., Stephens, G., Felton, E., Kalra, D., & Weier, O. W. (1998). A CORBA-based integration of distributed electronic healthcare records using the synapses approach. IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine2(3), 124-138.

Rolko, E., & Chan, T. (2015). Implementation of radio frequency identification for medication tray management. The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy68(5), 412.

Subramani, M. (2004). How do suppliers benefit from information technology use in supply chain relationships? MIS Quarterly, 45-73.